Lyme Disease in Spain: An Overview
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Archivos de Medicina Universitaria
Gómez-Gordo C, Garzón-Polanco M, Fokina T. Lyme Disease in Spain: An Overview. AMU. 2020; 2(1):6-17
Lyme disease (LD) is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Borrelia. LD is one of the most frequent diseases transmitted by ticks, being the most common in Europe and the United States. The geographical distribution of Borrelia is the reason why this is one of the most common borreliosis, which is also related to the habitat of its vectors (mostly the genus Ixodes). However, Borrelia is not the sole pathogen of this vector. As a consequence, some regions of northern Spain are considered to be borreliosis endemic areas, particularly of LD, due to the biogeochemical conditions of the area. Nevertheless, this zoonosis is widely spread throughout the country, due to the ubiquitous presence of mammals and other vertebrates carrying the vector (hosts). Although LD is very frequent across the Iberian Peninsula, the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations and vectors complicates its detection. Consequently, diagnosis is delayed and the disease develops, which leads to clinical complications.