Improving the Cellular Uptake of Biomimetic Magnetic Nanoparticles
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AuthorVurro, Federica; Jabalera Ruz, Ylenia María; Sola Leyva, Alberto; Iglesias Salto, Guillermo Ramón; Carrasco Jiménez, María Paz
Biomimetic magnetic nanoparticlesPoly (lactic-co-glycolic) acidPLGAPenetrating TAT peptideNanoparticlesMagnetic HyperthermiaCellular uptake
Vurro, F.; Jabalera, Y.; Mannucci, S.; Glorani, G.; Sola-Leyva, A.; Gerosa, M.; Romeo, A.; Romanelli, M.G.; Malatesta, M.; Calderan, L.; et al. Improving the Cellular Uptake of Biomimetic Magnetic Nanoparticles. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 766. [https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030766]
SponsorshipFUR (Fondo Unico della Ricerca-University of Verona); Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad from Spain CGL2016-76723; European Commission CGL2016-76723; Junta de Andalucia A-BIO-376-UGR18; Spanish Government PID2019-109294RB-100
Magnetococcus marinus magnetosome-associated protein MamC, expressed as recombinant, has been proven to mediate the formation of novel biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs) that are successful drug nanocarriers for targeted chemotherapy and hyperthermia agents. These BMNPs present several advantages over inorganic magnetic nanoparticles, such as larger sizes that allow the former to have larger magnetic moment per particle, and an isoelectric point at acidic pH values, which allows both the stable functionalization of BMNPs at physiological pH value and the molecule release at acidic (tumor) environments, simply based on electrostatic interactions. However, difficulties for BMNPs cell internalization still hold back the efficiency of these nanoparticles as drug nanocarriers and hyperthermia agents. In the present study we explore the enhanced BMNPs internalization following upon their encapsulation by poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved molecule. Internalization is further optimized by the functionalization of the nanoformulation with the cell-penetrating TAT peptide (TATp). Our results evidence that cells treated with the nanoformulation [TAT-PLGA(BMNPs)] show up to 80% more iron internalized (after 72 h) compared to that of cells treated with BMNPs (40%), without any significant decrease in cell viability. This nanoformulation showing optimal internalization is further characterized. In particular, the present manuscript demonstrates that neither its magnetic properties nor its performance as a hyperthermia agent are significantly altered due to the encapsulation. In vitro experiments demonstrate that, following upon the application of an alternating magnetic field on U87MG cells treated with BMNPs and TAT-PLGA(BMNPs), the cytotoxic effect of BMNPs was not affected by the TAT-PLGA enveloping. Based on that, difficulties shown in previous studies related to poor cell uptake of BMNPs can be overcome by the novel nanoassembly described here.