Immunoregulatory Effects of Porcine Plasma Protein Concentrates on Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Splenocytes
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AuthorHernández Chirlaque, Cristina; Aranda, Carlos J.; Ocón, Borja; Polo, Javier; Martínez Augustín, María Olga; Sánchez De Medina López-Huertas, Fermín
Immunoglobulin concentrateSerum protein concentrateToll-like receptorsTLR4Myd88
Hernández-Chirlaque, C.; Aranda, C.J.; Ocón, B.; Polo, J.; Martínez-Augustin, O.; Sánchez de Medina, F. Immunoregulatory Effects of Porcine Plasma Protein Concentrates on Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Splenocytes. Animals 2021, 11, 807. [https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030807]
SponsorshipAPC Europe; Ministry of Economy and Competitivity; European Commission SAF2017-88457-R AGL2017-85270R BFU2014-57736-P AGL2014-58883-R; Junta de Andalucia CTS235 CTS164; University of Granada (Contrato Puente Program-Plan Propio); Ministry of Education [Spain]; Instituto de Salud Carlos III; European Commission
Blood contains proteins which have interest as products that may regulate immune function. For this reason some protein-based products are currently used as nutritional supplements for animals, for instance two porcine concentrates, spray dried serum (SDS), and an immunoglobulin concentrate (IC). These products have shown to protect against colonic inflammation in rodents. In the present study we characterize the ability of these products to modulate immune function in isolated cells, namely intestinal epithelial cells (IEC18 cells) and rat spleen cells. Our data indicate that both porcine protein concentrates indeed alter immune cell function, based on the secretion of the modulators known as cytokines. In intestinal epithelial IEC18 cells they promoted the secretion of GRO alpha and MCP-1 cytokines. In spleen cells they mainly inhibited the production of TNF, a key proinflammatory cytokine. In addition, the IC product augmented the release of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Taken together, our data indicate that the immunomodulatory effects observed in vivo are consistent with the direct actions of the protein concentrates on epithelial cells, T lymphocytes, and monocytes. Serum protein concentrates have been shown to exert in vivo anti-inflammatory effects. Specific effects on different cell types and their mechanism of action remain unraveled. We aimed to characterize the immunomodulatory effect of two porcine plasma protein concentrates, spray dried serum (SDS) and an immunoglobulin concentrate (IC), currently used as animal nutritional supplements with established in vivo immunomodulatory properties. Cytokine production by the intestinal epithelial cell line IEC18 and by primary cultures of rat splenocytes was studied. The molecular pathways involved were explored with specific inhibitors and gene knockdown. Our results indicate that both products induced GRO alpha and MCP-1 production in IEC18 cells by a MyD88/NF-kappa B-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of TNF production was observed in rat primary splenocyte cultures. The immunoglobulin concentrate induced IL-10 expression in primary splenocytes and lymphocytes. The effect on TNF was independent of IL-10 production or the stimulation of NF-kB, MAPKs, AKT, or RAGE. In conclusion, SDS and IC directly regulate intestinal and systemic immune response in murine intestinal epithelial cells and in T lymphocytes and monocytes.