Heterometallic Titanium-Organic Frameworks as Dual Metal Catalysts for Synergistic Non-Buffered Hydrolysis of Nerve Agent Simulants
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AuthorCastells-Gil, Javier; Muñoz Padial, Natalia; Almora-Barrios, Neyvis; Gil-San-Millán, Rodrigo; Romero -Angel, Maria; Torres, Virginia; da Silva, Ivan; Waerenborgh, Joao C.; Jagiello, Jaciek; R. Navarro, Jorge A.; Tatay, Sergio; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos
Chem. 2020, 11, 3118-3131
SponsorshipFinancial support for this work was provided by the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Global Fellowships (749359-EnanSET, N.M.P) within the European Union research and innovation framework programme (2014-2020)
Heterometallic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can offer important advantages over their homometallic counterparts to enable targeted modification of their adsorption, structural response, electronic structure, or chemical reactivity. However, controlling metal distribution in these solids still remains a challenge. The family of mesoporous titanium-organic frameworks, MUV-101(M), displays heterometallic TiM2 nodes assembled from direct reaction of Ti(IV) and M(II) salts. We use the degradation of nerve agent simulants to demonstrate that only TiFe2 nodes are capable of catalytic degradation in non-buffered conditions. By using an integrative experimental-computational approach, we rationalize how the two metals influence each other, in this case, for a synergistic mechanism reminiscent of bimetallic enzymes. Our results highlight the importance of controlling metal distribution at an atomic level to span the interest of heterometallic MOFs to a broad scope of cascade or tandem reactions. Summary Mixed-metal or heterometallic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are gaining importance as a route to produce materials with increasing chemical and functional complexities. We report a family of heterometallic titanium frameworks, MUV-101(M), and use them to exemplify the advantages of controlling metal distribution across the framework in heterogeneous catalysis by exploring their activity toward the degradation of a nerve agent simulant of Sarin gas. MUV-101(Fe) is the only pristine MOF capable of catalytic degradation of diisopropyl-fluorophosphate (DIFP) in non-buffered aqueous media. This activity cannot be explained only by the association of two metals, but to their synergistic cooperation, to create a whole that is more efficient than the simple sum of its parts. Our simulations suggest a dual-metal mechanism reminiscent of bimetallic enzymes, where the combination of Ti(IV) Lewis acid and Fe(III)–OH Brönsted base sites leads to a lower energy barrier for more efficient degradation of DIFP in absence of a base.