Gambling-Specific Cognitions Are Not Associated With Either Abstract or Probabilistic Reasoning: A Dual Frequentist-Bayesian Analysis of Individuals With and Without Gambling Disorder
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FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
Gambling-related cognitionsAbstract reasoningProbabilistic reasoningIntelligenceMotivated reasoningGambling Disorder
Muela I, Navas JF and Perales JC (2021) Gambling-Specific Cognitions Are Not Associated With Either Abstract or Probabilistic Reasoning: A Dual Frequentist-Bayesian Analysis of Individuals With and Without Gambling Disorder. Front. Psychol. 11:611784. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.611784
SponsorshipSpanish Government (Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad) PSI201345055-P PSI2017-85488-P; Spanish Government (Secretaria de Estado de Investigacion, Desarrollo e Innovacion) PSI201345055-P PSI2017-85488-P; Spanish Government (Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional, FEDER, European Union) PSI201345055-P PSI2017-85488-P; Spanish Government (Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovacion y Universidades) PRE2018-085150; Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation post-doctoral contract (Juan de la Cierva) FJC2018036047-I
Background: Distorted gambling-related cognitions are tightly related to gambling problems, and are one of the main targets of treatment for disordered gambling, but their etiology remains uncertain. Although folk wisdom and some theoretical approaches have linked them to lower domain-general reasoning abilities, evidence regarding that relationship remains unconvincing. Method: In the present cross-sectional study, the relationship between probabilistic/abstract reasoning, as measured by the Berlin Numeracy Test (BNT), and the Matrices Test, respectively, and the five dimensions of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), was tested in a sample of 77 patients with gambling disorder and 58 individuals without gambling problems. Results and interpretation: Neither BNT nor matrices scores were significantly related to gambling-related cognitions, according to frequentist (MANCOVA/ANCOVA) analyses, performed both considering and disregarding group (patients, non-patients) in the models. Correlation Bayesian analyses (bidirectional BF10) largely supported the null hypothesis, i.e., the absence of relationships between the measures of interest. This pattern or results reinforces the idea that distorted cognitions do not originate in a general lack of understanding of probability or low fluid intelligence, but probably result from motivated reasoning.