Pain sensitivity and shoulder function among breast cancer survivors compared to matched controls: a case-control study
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Breast cancer survivorsMovement-evoked painMuscle strengthRange ofmotion
Rasmussen, G. H. F., Madeleine, P., Arroyo-Morales, M., Voigt, M., & Kristiansen, M. (2021). Pain sensitivity and shoulder function among breast cancer survivors compared to matched controls: a case-control study. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 1-10. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s11764-021-00995-y]
SponsorshipDanish Cancer Association R204-A12469
Objective Persistent pain and loss of shoulder function are common adverse effects to breast cancer treatment, but the extent of these issues in comparison with healthy controls is unclear for survivors beyond 1.5 years after treatment. The purpose of this study was to benchmark differences in pressure pain thresholds (PPT), maximal isokinetic muscle strength (MIMS), and active range of motion (ROM) of females with persistent pain ≥1.5 years after breast cancer treatment (BCS) compared with pain-free matched controls (CON), and examine the presence of movement-evoked pain (MEP) during assessment of MIMS. Methods The PPTs of 18 locations were assessed using a pressure algometer and a numeric rating scale was used to assess intensity of MEP. Active ROM and MIMS were measured using a universal goniometer and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. Results A two-way analysis of variance revealed that PPTs across all locations,MIMS for horizontal shoulder extension/flexion and shoulder adduction, active ROM for shoulder flexion, horizontal shoulder extension, shoulder abduction, and external shoulder rotation were significantly lower for BCS compared with CON (P < 0.05). MEP was significantly higher for BCS and MEP intensity had a significant, negative correlation with PPTs (P < 0.01). Discussion/conclusion BCS with persistent pain ≥1.5 years after treatment demonstrates widespread reductions in PPTs and movement-specific reductions inMIMS and active ROMof the affected shoulder, along with MEP during physical performance assessment. Implications for cancer survivors BCS with persistent pain ≥1.5 years after treatment shows signs of central sensitization andmay benefit from individualized rehabilitation.