Dropout, Autonomy and Reintegration in Spain: A Study of the Life of Young Women on Temporary Release
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AuthorAñaños Bedriñana, Fanny Tania; García Vita, María del Mar; García Vita, Diego; Raya Miranda, Rocío
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
Young peopleSchool dropoutWomenPrisonAutonomyWorkSocial reintegrationEducation
Añaños FT, García-Vita MM, Galán-Casado D and Raya-Miranda R (2020) Dropout, Autonomy and Reintegration in Spain: A Study of the Life of Young Women on Temporary Release. Front. Psychol. 11:1359. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01359
SponsorshipSpanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO); State Research Agency/Agencia Estatal de Investigacion (AEI); European Regional Development Fund (FEDER, Spain); DEHUSO Unit for Excellence of the University of Granada
This study analyses the psycho-educational and social paths of women prisoners after the time they drop out of school as minors, based on different variables related to autonomy and their preparedness to face temporary release. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse a national sample of 310 women prisoners (30.1% of the population) in 31 prisons through a mixedmode questionnaire and interview. We analysed the significant association of variables related to dropout and obtained a log-linear model that relates dropout to recidivism and Roma culture. Work experience was analysed using the McNemar test, and variables influencing the participant’s job at the time of the study were analysed by applying cluster analysis. Results: Young women comprise 66.6% of individuals who drop of the education system as minors (primary 49.3% and secondary 22%). They drop out between the ages of 7 and 17, and have traits of greater vulnerability than those who stayed in school until adulthood. In this population, we find a significant association with various factors: belonging to Roma culture, having family members in prison and delinquent recidivism; and higher unemployment (43.4%) and low income before entering prison. This situation is increasing today. In prison, these women had more connection to education/training, which can improve their employability. They also encounter difficulties with personal security, decision-making, personal/professional dependence, planning for the future, administrative matters and handling information and communication technologies, jobseeking skills, etc. Their self-perceived strengths are, however, assuming responsibility, taking orders, respecting schedules and timetables, working on a team and feeling prepared to start a job, as well as having optimistic convictions about the future. Conclusion: The vulnerabilities and risk factors studied have a negative influence primarily on processes of personal, social and job autonomy in female minors who eft the education system. Yet these minors show factors of protection and resilience. On temporary release at the time of the study, they face the consequences that their prison terms and incarceration have for their perceptions, attitudes, competencies and future prospects, as well as social marginalization and stigma. Early, coherent socioeducational interventions are thus needed to improve social integration-reintegration.