Multi-view Temporal Alignment for Non-parallel Articulatory-to-Acoustic Speech Synthesis
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AuthorGonzález López, José Andrés; Gónzalez Atienza, Míriam; Gómez Alanis, Alejandro; Pérez-Córdoba, Alejandro; Green, Phil D
SponsorshipThis work was funded by the Spanish State Research Agency (SRA) under the grant PID2019-108040RBC22/ SRA/10.13039/501100011033. Jose A. Gonzalez-Lopez holds a Juan de la Cierva-Incorporation Fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (IJCI-2017-32926).
Articulatory-to-acoustic (A2A) synthesis refers to the generation of audible speech from captured movement of the speech articulators. This technique has numerous applications, such as restoring oral communication to people who cannot longer speak due to illness or injury. Most successful techniquesso far adopt a supervised learning framework, in which timesynchronousarticulatory-and-speech recordings are used to train a supervised machine learning algorithm that can be used later to map articulator movements to speech. This, however, prevents the application of A2A techniques in cases where parallel data is unavailable, e.g., a person has already lost her/his voice and only articulatory data can be captured. In this work, we propose a solution to this problem based on the theory of multi-view learning. The proposed algorithm attempts to find an optimal temporal alignment between pairs of nonaligned articulatory-and-acoustic sequences with the same phonetic content by projecting them into a common latent space where both views are maximally correlated and then applying dynamic time warping. Several variants of this idea are discussed and explored. We show that the quality of speech generated in the non-aligned scenario is comparable to that obtained in the parallel scenario.