Dietary Patterns and Their Association with Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Markers in Children and Adolescents: Genobox Cohort
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AuthorLatorre Millán, Miriam; González Gil, Esther; Aguilera García, Concepción María; Gil Hernández, Ángel
Cluster analysisObesityDietAnthropometryInflammationOxidative stressCardiovascular diseases
Latorre-Millán, M., Rupérez, A. I., González-Gil, E. M., Santaliestra-Pasías, A., Vázquez-Cobela, R., Gil-Campos, M., ... & Bueno, G. (2020). Dietary patterns and their association with body composition and cardiometabolic markers in children and adolescents: Genobox cohort. Nutrients, 12(11), 3424. [doi:10.3390/nu12113424]
SponsorshipPlan Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica, Desarrollo e Innovacion Tecnologica (I+D+I), Instituto de Salud Carlos III-Health Research Funding (FONDOS FEDER) PI05/1968 PI11/01425 PI11/02042 PI11/02059 PI16/01301 PI16/01205 PI1600871; CIBEROBN Network CB15/00131 CB15/00043; Juan de la Cierva-Formacion from the Spanish Government FJCI-2017-34967 FJCI-2014-19795; Vice-Rectorate of Research and Transfer of the University of Granada, Spain
Diet is a key factor for obesity development; however, limited data are available on dietary cluster analysis in children with obesity. We aimed to assess the associations between dietary patterns and obesity and several cardiometabolic markers. Anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, blood pressure and plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial damage were determined in 674 Caucasian children, aged 5–16, with normal or excess weight. Using a food frequency questionnaire and cluster analysis, two consistent dietary patterns were shown, labeled as health conscious (HC) and sweet and processed (SP). The HC pattern included a greater proportion of participants with overweight/obesity than the SP cluster (80.1% vs. 63.8%). However, children with obesity within the HC cluster, showed less abdominal fat, through waist to hip (0.93 vs. 0.94) and waist to height (0.61 vs. 0.63) indexes (p < 0.01). Univariate general models showed several additional di erences in cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in the global and stratified analyses, with a healthier profile being observed mainly in the HC cluster. However, multivariate models questioned these findings and pointed out the need for further studies in this field. Anyhow, our findings support the benefits of a healthy diet and highlight the importance of dietary patterns in the cardiometabolic risk assessment of children with overweight/obesity, beyond weight control.