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dc.contributor.authorBarragán, Rubén
dc.contributor.authorMolero, Francisco
dc.contributor.authorGranados Muñoz, María José 
dc.contributor.authorSalvador, Pedro
dc.contributor.authorPujadas, M.
dc.contributor.authorArtiñano, Begoña
dc.identifier.citationBarragan, R.; Molero, F.; Granados-Muñoz, M.J.; Salvador, P.; Pujadas, M.; Artíñano, B. Feasibility of Ceilometers Data to Estimate Radiative Forcing Values: Application to Different Conditions around the COVID-19 Lockdown Period. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 3699. [doi:10.3390/rs12223699]es_ES
dc.descriptionThe authors would like to acknowledge to ACTRIS-SPAIN (CGL2017-90884-REDIT), coordinated by Granada University, for providing quality-assured aerosol measurements and acknowledge to AERONET and COPERNICUS Global Land Services for sun-photometer and satellite quality-assured data processing and distribution. The authors also acknowledge to the Atmospheric Modelling & Weather Forecasting Group in the University of Athens, the Earth Science Dpt. from the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre and the Naval Research laboratory for the provision of SKIRON, DREAM/BSCDREAM8b and NAAPs aerosol maps, respectively. Philippe Dubuisson, the developer of the GAME code, is specially acknowledged. Furthermore, the developers of the HYSPLIT model are also acknowledged. The task of identifying African dust events and quantifying the dust contribution in the regions of the Spanish territory has been routinely carried out in the framework of projects funded by the Spanish ministry for the Ecological Transition (MITECO).es_ES
dc.description.abstractIn this study, the feasibility of using ceilometer signals to retrieve radiative forcing values is evaluated. The Global Atmospheric Model (GAME) radiative transfer model is used to estimate the shortwave and longwave radiative forcing using an aerosol parameterization based on AERONET data and vertical profiles from a Lufft CHM-15k Nimbus ceilometer. First, eight cases confirmed as dusty days are analyzed to check the feasibility of using ceilometer profiles to feed GAME. The obtained radiative forcing estimates are in good agreement with the literature showing negative values in the short wave (SW) (cooling effect) and positive values in the long wave (LW) (heating effect), both at all levels. As in the literature, radiative forcing estimates show a strong dependence on variations in the aerosol optical depth (AOD), solar zenith angle (θz), surface temperature (ST), and single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA440). Thus, GAME can be fed using ceilometer measurements obtaining reliable results. Then, as the temporal evolution of the AOD440 between 27 January and 15 June compared to the 6-year weekly AERONET AOD440 average (from 2014 to 2019) shows a decrease because of the lockdown imposed in Spain due to the COVID-19, a total of 37 radiative forcing calculations without African dust, divided into 8 scenarios, are performed in order to check the effect of the lockdown measures in the radiative forcing. It is shown that the decrease in the AOD, during the lockdown, caused a decrease in the cooling effect in the SW spectral range at all levels. Besides, the increase in the ST increased the heating effect of the aerosols in the LW at the top of the atmosphere and the presence of pollution and absorbing particles (SSA440 < 0.90) caused an increase of the heating effect in the LW at the surface. Therefore, the observed variations in the radiative forcing estimates before and during the lockdown are directly related with the decrease in emissions of aerosols related to human activities.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipSpanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity (CRISOL) CGL2017-85344-Res_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipMadrid Regional Government (TIGAS-CM) Y2018/EMT-5177es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipMaria Sklodowska-Curie IF 796539es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipH2020 programme from the European Union 654109; 871115es_ES
dc.rightsAtribución 3.0 España*
dc.subjectRadiative forcing estimateses_ES
dc.subjectAerosols es_ES
dc.subjectCeilometer signalses_ES
dc.subjectSanitary crisises_ES
dc.titleFeasibility of Ceilometers Data to Estimate Radiative Forcing Values: Application to Different Conditions around the COVID-19 Lockdown Periodes_ES
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EU/H2020/Maria Sklodowska-Curie IF 796539es_ES

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Atribución 3.0 España
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Atribución 3.0 España