The Psychological Consequences of COVID-19 and Lockdown in the Spanish Population: An Exploratory Sequential Design
MetadataShow full item record
COVID-19LockdownPsychological distressMixed methods
Hidalgo, M.D.; Balluerka, N.; Gorostiaga, A.; Espada, J.P.; Santed, M.Á.; Padilla, J.L.; Gómez-Benito, J. The Psychological Consequences of COVID-19 and Lockdown in the Spanish Population: An Exploratory Sequential Design. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8578. [doi:10.3390/ijerph17228578]
SponsorshipSpanish Ministry of Universities
The objectives of this study were to analyze the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown in the Spanish population and to identify what population profiles were most affected. The study used a sequential exploratory design. In the qualitative phase, 40 participants were recruited based on theoretically relevant criteria and the saturation of the information provided by the interviews. In the quantitative phase, a large representative sample was applied. The universe considered was the adult population of Spain. A total of 6789 surveys were conducted. Both the analysis of the narratives of the interviews and the responses to the panel survey showed relevant changes in attitudes and mood swings compared to the period prior to lockdown. These changes include dysphoric moods (i.e., experiences of distress such as sadness/depression, anxiety, rage, feeling of unreality, worry, etc.) and also some euphoric moods (i.e., feelings of well-being, happiness, etc.). A higher number of women were affected than men and a greater increase was observed in younger people. The findings of the study may serve as a basis for detecting needs and providing psychological support, as the symptoms detected as the most common are key for the processes of screening at-risk individuals.