Systematic Review on N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake in European Countries in Light of the Current Recommendations – Focus on Specific Population Groups
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N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidN-6 polyunsaturated fatty acidDietary intakeDietary recommendations
Sioen, I., van Lieshout, L., Eilander, A., Fleith, M., Lohner, S., Szommer, A., ... & Campoy, C. (2017). Systematic review on n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in European countries in light of the current recommendations-Focus on specific population groups. Annals of nutrition and metabolism, 70(1), 39-50. [DOI: 10.1159/000456723]
SponsorshipILSI Europe Nutrient Intake Optimisation Task Force; Early Nutrition and Long-Term Health Task Force
Background: Earlier reviews indicated that in many countries adults, children and adolescents consume on an average less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation. Summary: The intake of total and individual n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in European infants, children, adolescents, elderly and pregnant/lactating women was evaluated systematically. Results: The evaluations were done against recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority. Key Messages: Fifty-three studies from 17 different European countries reported an intake of total n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and/or individual n-3 or n-6 PUFAs in at least one of the specific population groups: 10 in pregnant women, 4 in lactating women, 3 in infants 6–12 months, 6 in children 1–3 years, 11 in children 4–9 years, 8 in adolescents 10–18 years and 11 in elderly >65 years. Mean linoleic acid intake was within the recommendation (4 energy percentage [E%]) in 52% of the countries, with inadequate intakes more likely in lactating women, adolescents and elderly. Mean α-linolenic acid intake was within the recommendation (0.5 E%) in 77% of the countries. In 26% of the countries, mean eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid intake was as recommended. These results indicate that intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may be suboptimal in specific population groups in Europe.