Profile of the Spatial Distribution Patterns of the Human and Bacteriophage Virome in a Wastewater Treatment Plant Located in the South of Spain
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AuthorGarcía Fontana, Cristina; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alejandro; Muñoz Palazón, Barbara; González-Martínez, Alejandro; Vela Cano, María; González López, Jesús Juan
Next-generation sequencingSewage viromeViral distributionVirusTransmission electron microscopyWastewater treatment plant
García-Fontana, C.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Muñoz-Palazon, B.; Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Vela-Cano, M.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J. Profile of the Spatial Distribution Patterns of the Human and Bacteriophage Virome in a Wastewater Treatment Plant Located in the South of Spain. Water 2020, 12, 2316. [doi:10.3390/w12082316]
SponsorshipInstitute of Water Research of University of Granada
In wastewater treatment plants, most microbial characterization has focused on bacterial, archaeal, and fungal populations. Due to the difficult isolation, quantification, and identification of viruses, only a limited number of virome studies associated with wastewater treatment plants have been carried out. However, the virus populations play an important role in the microbial dynamics in wastewater treatment systems and the biosafety of effluents. In this work, the viral members present in influent wastewater, mixed liquor (aerobic bioreactor), excess sludge, and effluent water of a conventional activated sludge system for the treatment of urban wastewater were identified. Viral members were observed by transmission electron microscopy and studied through next-generation sequencing studies. The results showed the dominance of bacteriophages in the viral community in all samples, with the dominant viral phylotype classified as Escherichia coli O157 typing phage 7. Moreover, different human viruses, such as Cynomolgus cytomegalovirus and Gammaherpesvirus, were also detected.