Aminopeptidases in Cardiovascular and Renal Function. Role as Predictive Renal Injury Biomarkers
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AuthorVargas Palomares, José Félix; Wangesteen, Rosemary; Rodríguez Gómez, Isabel María; García-Estañ, Joaquín
Urinary aminopeptidasesBiomarkersarterial hypertensionRenal function
Vargas, F.; Wangesteen, R.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I.; García-Estañ, J. Aminopeptidases in Cardiovascular and Renal Function. Role as Predictive Renal Injury Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5615. [doi:10.3390/ijms21165615]
Aminopeptidases (APs) are metalloenzymes that hydrolyze peptides and polypeptides by scission of the N-terminus amino acid and that also participate in the intracellular final digestion of proteins. APs play an important role in protein maturation, signal transduction, and cell-cycle control, among other processes. These enzymes are especially relevant in the control of cardiovascular and renal functions. APs participate in the regulation of the systemic and local renin–angiotensin system and also modulate the activity of neuropeptides, kinins, immunomodulatory peptides, and cytokines, even contributing to cholesterol uptake and angiogenesis. This review focuses on the role of four key APs, aspartyl-, alanyl-, glutamyl-, and leucyl-cystinyl-aminopeptidases, in the control of blood pressure (BP) and renal function and on their association with different cardiovascular and renal diseases. In this context, the effects of AP inhibitors are analyzed as therapeutic tools for BP control and renal diseases. Their role as urinary biomarkers of renal injury is also explored. The enzymatic activities of urinary APs, which act as hydrolyzing peptides on the luminal surface of the renal tubule, have emerged as early predictive renal injury biomarkers in both acute and chronic renal nephropathies, including those induced by nephrotoxic agents, obesity, hypertension, or diabetes. Hence, the analysis of urinary AP appears to be a promising diagnostic and prognostic approach to renal disease in both research and clinical settings.