Factors Related to the Differential Development of Inter-Professional Collaboration Abilities in Medicine and Nursing Students
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Inter-professional collaborative workEmpathyLifelong learningLonelinessSubjective well beingMedicine studentsNursing studentsProfessionalism
Berduzco-Torres N, Choquenaira-Callañaupa B, Medina P, Chihuantito-Abal LA, Caballero S, Gallegos E, San-Martín M, Delgado Bolton RC and Vivanco L (2020) Factors Related to the Differential Development of Inter-Professional Collaboration Abilities in Medicine and Nursing Students. Front. Psychol. 11:432. [doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00432]
SponsorshipPeru by the National Council of Science, Technology and Technological Innovation (CONCYTEC); Peru by the National University San Antonio Abad del Cusco (UNSAAC) E041-2017-UNSAAC-02; Spain by the Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII) PI16/01934; Spain by the Operational Program of the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER-LARIOJA) 6FRS-ABC-012
Introduction: For physicians and nurses, teamwork involves a set of communication and social skills, and specific training in interdisciplinary work in order to be able to work together cooperatively, sharing responsibilities, solving problems, and making decisions to carry out actions centered on patients’ care. Recent studies demonstrate that in the absence of targeted interdisciplinary educational programs, the development of teamwork abilities is sensitive to the influence of the dominant work environment. The purpose of this study was to characterize the role that environmental and individual factors play in the development of teamwork in environments with a dominant hierarchical work model. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 1,880 undergraduate students (980 medicine students and 900 nursing students) from three universities of Cusco city (Peru). The Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician–Nurse Collaboration was used as the main variable. The Jefferson Scales of Empathy and Lifelong Learning, the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, the Scale of Life Satisfaction, sex, discipline, age, and academic semester were used as explanatory variables. After calculating internal reliability and normality of the main measures, descriptive, comparative, and correlation analyses were performed to determine variables influencing the teamwork score. Results: A total of 1,518 (81%) surveys were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed in all instruments. In the sample, nursing students showed greater inter-professional collaborative abilities than medicine students (p < 0.001). This attitudinal gap was higher in advanced semesters. A three-way ANOVA indicated differences in teamwork were associated with discipline (p < 0.001), sex (p < 0.01), and university (p < 0.001). However, main effects were associated only with discipline (ηp 2 = 0.14). Teamwork showed an inverse correlation with loneliness (ρ = −0.28; p < 0.001) and a positive correlation with empathy (ρ = + 0.49; p < 0.001) and lifelong earning (ρ = + 0.48; p < 0.001). Teamwork positively correlated with life satisfaction only in the medicine student group (ρ = + 0.15; p < 0.001). Conclusion: These findings bring new evidence to support the main effect that social environments, in the absence of targeted interdisciplinary educational programs, play in the development of teamwork.