Effect of a SO2 Rich Atmosphere on Tempera Paint Mock-Ups. Part 2: Accelerated Aging of Azurite- and Malachite-Based Paints
MetadataShow full item record
Tempera paintingAzuriteMalachiteArtificial agingSulfur dioxideCultural Heritage
Pozo-Antonio, J. S., Cardell, C., Barral, D., Dionisio, A., & Rivas, T. (2020). Effect of a SO2 Rich Atmosphere on Tempera Paint Mock-Ups. Part 2: Accelerated Aging of Azurite-and Malachite-Based Paints. Minerals, 10(5), 424. [doi: 10.3390/min10050424]
SponsorshipSpanish Research Project AERIMPACT CGL2012-30729; Spanish Research Project EXPOAIR P12-FQM-1889; European Union (EU); Andalusian Research Group RNM-179; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) IJCI-2017-3277
In order to improve our knowledge of the weathering response of tempera paints exposed to an industrial atmosphere, azurite- and malachite-based paint mock-ups prepared with either rabbit glue or egg yolk binders were artificially aged in an SO2 rich atmosphere. The aim was to identify the different alteration mechanisms and forms of degradation in the paints by observing their physical (color, gloss, reflectance, and roughness), mineralogical, chemical, and micro-textural characteristics. Superficial physical changes were evaluated by stereomicroscopy, spectrophotometry, gloss measurement, hyperspectral imaging, and roughness measurements. Chemical and mineralogical changes were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis (SEM-EDS), which was also used to evaluate the micro-texture of the paints. The differences between the fresh temperas were due mainly to the binder (egg yolk or rabbit glue) used in the paint mixture, which also played a crucial role in the different deterioration patterns in the artificially aged paint mock-ups. Thus, the egg yolk-based paints remained physically quite intact after SO2 exposure, although they suffered more significant chemical degradation, above all in the form of copious precipitation of Cu and Ca-rich sulfate salts and the subsequent yellowing of the egg yolk binder. The SO2 aged rabbit glue-based mock-ups showed microscopically important crack formation and binder loss and fewer sulfated salts precipitated on the surface of the paints.