Functionalized Cellulose for the Controlled Synthesis of Novel Carbon–Ti Nanocomposites: Physicochemical and Photocatalytic Properties
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AuthorHamad, Hesham; Bailón-García, Esther; Morales Torres, Sergio; Carrasco Marín, Francisco; Pérez Cadenas, Agustín Francisco; Maldonado Hodar, Francisco José
Cellulose decrystallizationPhosphorus functionalitiesCarbon–Ti nanocompositesTiP2O7 crystalsOrange GPhotocatalysis
Hamad, H., Bailón-García, E., Morales-Torres, S., Carrasco-Marín, F., Pérez-Cadenas, A. F., & Maldonado-Hódar, F. J. (2020). Functionalized Cellulose for the Controlled Synthesis of Novel Carbon–Ti Nanocomposites: Physicochemical and Photocatalytic Properties. Nanomaterials, 10(4), 729. [doi:10.3390/nano10040729]
SponsorshipThis work was financially supported by the Spanish Projects ref. RTI2018-099224-B-I00 from ERDF/Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities—State Research Agency and Junta de Andalucía - Grant ref. RMN-172.
Carbon–Ti nanocomposites were prepared by a controlled two-step method using microcrystalline cellulose as a raw material. The synthesis procedure involves the solubilization of cellulose by an acid treatment (H3PO4 or HNO3) and the impregnation with the Ti precursor followed of a carbonization step at 500 or 800 ◦C. The type of acid treatment leads to a different functionalization of cellulose with phosphorus- or oxygen-containing surface groups, which are able to control the load, dispersion and crystalline phase of Ti during the composite preparation. Thus, phosphorus functionalities lead to amorphous carbon–Ti composites at 500 ◦C, while TiP2O7 crystals are formed when prepared at 800 ◦C. On the contrary, oxygenated groups induce the formation of TiO2 rutile at an unusually low temperature (500 ◦C), while an increase of carbonization temperature promotes a progressive crystal growth. The removal of Orange G (OG) azo dye in aqueous solution, as target pollutant, was used to determine the adsorptive and photocatalytic efficiencies, with all composites being more active than the benchmark TiO2 material (Degussa P25). Carbon–Ti nanocomposites with a developed micro-mesoporosity, reduced band gap and TiO2 rutile phase were the most active in the photodegradation of OG under ultraviolet irradiation.