Seroprevalence and epidemiology of hepatitis B and C viruses in pregnant women in Spain. Risk factors for vertical transmission
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AuthorRuiz Extremera, Ángeles; Díaz Alcázar, María del Mar; Muñoz Gámez, José Antonio; Carretero, Pilar; Gallo Vallejo, José Luis; Quiles-Pérez, Rosa; Muñoz de Rueda, Paloma; Expoósito Ruiz, Manuela; Salmerón Escobar, Francisco Javier
Public Library of Science
Ruiz-Extremera A´, Dı´az-Alca´zar MdM, Muñoz-Ga´mez JA, Cabrera-Lafuente M, Martı´n E, Arias-Llorente RP, et al. (2020) Seroprevalence and epidemiology of hepatitis B and C viruses in pregnant women in Spain. Risk factors for vertical transmission. PLoS ONE 15(5): e0233528. [https:// doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233528]
SponsorshipThis study received financial assistance from the following: Ciberehd, Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias del Instituto de Salud Carlos III. ISCIII, Proyecto del Plan Nacional I+D+i 2013-2016 (PI13/01925), Confinanciacio´n Fondos FEDER. Gilead Fellowship Program (GLD14-00292 and GLD15-00307).
Background & aim Worldwide, measures are being implemented to eradicate hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, which can be transmitted from the mother during childbirth. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV in pregnant women in Spain, focusing on country of origin, epidemiological factors and risk of vertical transmission (VT). Methodology Multicentre open-cohort study performed during 2015. HBV prevalence was determined in 21870 pregnant women and HCV prevalence in 7659 pregnant women. Epidemiological and risk factors for VT were analysed in positive women and differences between HBV and HCV cases were studied. Results HBV prevalence was 0.42% (91/21870) and HCV prevalence was 0.26% (20/7659). Of the women with HBV, 65.7% (44/67) were migrants. The HBV transmission route to the mother was unknown in 40.3% of cases (27/67) and VT in 31.3% (21/67). Among risk factors for VT, 67.7% (42/62) of the women had viraemia and 14.5% (9/62) tested HBeAg-positive. All of the neonates born to HBV-positive mothers received immunoprophylaxis, and none contracted infection by VT. In 80% (16/20) of the women with HCV, the transmission route was parenteral, and nine were intravenous drug users. Viraemia was present in 40% (8/20) of the women and 10% (2/20) were HIV-coinfected. No children were infected. Women with HCV were less likely than women with HBV to breastfeed their child (65% vs. 86%). Conclusions The prevalences obtained in our study of pregnant women are lower than those previously documented for the general population. Among the women with HBV, the majority were migrants and had a maternal family history of infection, while among those with HCV, the most common factor was intravenous drug use. Despite the risk factors observed for VT, none of the children were infected. Proper immunoprophylaxis is essential to prevent VT in children born to HBV-positive women.