Tactile Discrimination, Praxis and Cognitive Impulsivity in ADHD Children: A Cross-Sectional Study
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorderTactile discriminationCognitive impulsivityPraxis
Romero-Ayuso, D., Maciver, D., Richmond, J., Jorquera-Cabrera, S., Garra-Palud, L., Zabala-Baños, C., ... & Triviño-Juárez, J. M. (2020). Tactile discrimination, praxis and cognitive impulsivity in adhd children: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(6), 1897. [doi:10.3390/ijerph17061897]
Background: The study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has traditionally focused on deficit of inhibitory control and cognitive impulsivity. However, the pathophysiology of ADHD has also been associated with the somatosensory cortex. The aim of this study was to explore if there were differences in tactile discrimination and praxis between neurotypical and ADHD children and whether these differences could be explained by cognitive impulsivity. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample comprised 74 children aged 7 to 11 years divided in two groups: 43 with neurotypical development, 31 with ADHD. To assess tactile discrimination, the finger localization and the graphestesia tests were used. Praxis was assessed with the Kaufman Assesment Battery for Children (K-ABC) hand movement subtest, the action program and the Zoo Map subtests of the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome, and the complex figure of Rey–Osterrieth test (ROCF). Cognitive impulsivity was assessed using the Magallanes Computerized Impulsivity Scale test (EMIC). Results: Children with ADHD showed greater cognitive impulsivity (p = 0.038) and scored lower in Zoo Map (p = 0.023) and hand-movement subtests (p = 0.002), and in ROCF test (p = 0.004). Differences in praxis skills still remained after controlling by gender and cognitive impulsivity. Conclusion: Praxis deficit might have repercussions not only on the characterization of ADHD but also on its treatment.