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dc.contributor.authorCarceller López, Juan Miguel
dc.identifier.citationAab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Albury, J. M., Allekotte, I., et al. (2020). A 3-year sample of almost 1,600 elves recorded above South America by the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory. Earth and Space Science, 7, e2019EA000582. []es_ES
dc.descriptionThe time and location of the 1,598 verified and reconstructed elves, used for the analysis showcased in this paper, are publicly available on the website of the Pierre Auger Observatory ( index.php/science/data). We wish to thank the World Wide Lightning Location Network (, a collaboration among over 50 universities and institutions, for providing the lightning location data used in this paper. We acknowledge Robert Marshall for providing one of the most advanced elve simulations to the public, a key tool in understanding the elves observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The successful installation, commissioning, and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and administrative staff in Malargüe.es_ES
dc.description.abstractElves are a class of transient luminous events, with a radial extent typically greater than 250 km, that occur in the lower ionosphere above strong electrical storms. We report the observation of 1,598 elves, from 2014 to 2016, recorded with unprecedented time resolution (100 ns) using the fluorescence detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory. The Auger Observatory is located in the Mendoza province of Argentina with a viewing footprint for elve observations of 3 · 106 km2, reaching areas above the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, as well as the Córdoba region, which is known for severe convective thunderstorms. Primarily designed for ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray observations, the Auger FD turns out to be very sensitive to the ultraviolet emission in elves. The detector features modified Schmidt optics with large apertures resulting in a field of view that spans the horizon, and year-round operation on dark nights with low moonlight background, when the local weather is favorable. The measured light profiles of 18% of the elve events have more than one peak, compatible with intracloud activity. Within the 3-year sample, 72% of the elves correlate with the far-field radiation measurements of the World Wide Lightning Location Network. The Auger Observatory plans to continue operations until at least 2025, including elve observations and analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this observatory is the only facility on Earth that measures elves with year-round operation and full horizon coverage.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipArgentina—Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica; Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET); Gobierno de la Provincia de Mendoza; Municipalidad de Malargüe; and NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, in gratitude for their continuing cooperation over land access; Australia—the Australian Research Council; Brazil—Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) Grants 2010/07359-6 and 1999/05404-3; Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC); Czech Republic—Grants MSMT CRLTT18004, LO1305, LM2015038, and CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001402; France—Centre de Calcul IN2P3/CNRS; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Conseil Régional Ile-de-France; Département Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire (PNC-IN2P3/CNRS); Département Sciences de l'Univers (SDU-INSU/CNRS); Institut Lagrange de Paris (ILP) Grant LABEX ANR-10-LABX-63 within the Investissements d'Avenir Programme Grant ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02; Germany—Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF); Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG); Finanzministerium Baden-Württemberg; Helmholtz Alliance for Astroparticle Physics (HAP); Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft. Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF); Ministerium für Innovation, Wissenschaft und Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen; Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst des Landes Baden-Württemberg; Italy—Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF); Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universitá e della Ricerca (MIUR); CETEMPS Center of Excellence; Ministero degli Affari Esteri (MAE); México—Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)167733; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM); PAPIIT DGAPA-UNAM; The Netherlands—Ministry of Education, Culture and Science; Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO); Dutch National e-Infrastructure with the support of SURF Cooperative; Poland—National Centre for Research and Development, Grant ERA-NET-ASPERA/02/11; National Science Centre, Grants 2013/08/M/ST9/00322, 2016/23/B/ST9/01635, and HARMONIA 5–2013/10/M/ST9/00062, UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00198; Portugal—Portuguese national funds and FEDER funds within Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (COMPETE); Romania—Romanian Ministry of Research and InnovationCNCS/CCCDI-UESFISCDI, projects PN-III-P1-1.2-PCCDI-2017- 0839/19PCCDI/2018, PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2016-1922, PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2016-1659, and PN18090102 within PNCDI III; Slovenia—Slovenian Research Agency; Spain—Comunidad de Madrid; Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER) funds; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad; Xunta de Galicia; European Community 7th Framework Program Grant FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IEF-328826; USA—Department of Energy, Contracts DE-AC02-07CH11359, DE-FR02-04ER41300, DE-FG02-99ER41107, and DE-SC0011689; National Science Foundation, Grant 0450696; The Grainger Foundation; Marie Curie-IRSES/EPLANET; European Particle Physics Latin American Network; European Union 7th Framework Program, Grant PIRSES-2009-GA-246806; and UNESCO.es_ES
dc.publisherAmerican Geophysical Uniones_ES
dc.rightsAtribución 3.0 España*
dc.titleA 3-Year Sample of Almost 1,600 Elves Recorded Above South America by the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatoryes_ES

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