Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Diet Quality are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Severity: The PREDIMED-Plus Study
MetadataShow full item record
Metabolic syndrome severityPhysical activityMediterranean dietDepression riskSedentary behaviour
Gallardo-Alfaro, L., Bibiloni, M. D. M., Mascaró, C. M., Montemayor, S., Ruiz-Canela, M., Salas-Salvadó, J., ... & Alonso-Gómez, Á. M. (2020). Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Diet Quality are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Severity: The PREDIMED-Plus Study. Nutrients, 12(4), 1013. [doi:10.3390/nu12041013]
SponsorshipThe PREDIMED-Plus trial was supported by the official funding agency for biomedical research of the Spanish government, ISCIII, through the Fondo de Investigación para la Salud (FIS), which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund [five coordinated FIS projects led by Jordi Salas-Salvadó and Josep Vidal, including the following projects: PI13/00673, PI13/00492, PI13/00272, PI13/01123, PI13/00462, PI13/00233, PI13/02184, PI13/00728, PI13/01090, PI13/01056, PI14/01722, PI14/00636, PI14/00618, PI14/00696, PI14/01206, PI14/01919, PI14/00853, PI14/01374, PI14/00972, PI14/00728, PI14/01471, PI16/00473, PI16/00662, PI16/01873, PI16/01094, PI16/00501, PI16/00533, PI16/00381, PI16/00366, PI16/01522, PI16/01120, PI17/00764, PI17/01183, PI17/00855, PI17/01347, PI17/00525, PI17/01827, PI17/00532, PI17/00215, PI17/01441, PI17/00508, PI17/01732, PI17/00926, PI19/00957, PI19/00386, PI19/00309, PI19/01032, PI19/00576, PI19/00017, PI19/01226, PI19/00781, PI19/01560, and PI19/01332], the Especial Action Project entitled: Implementación y evaluación de una intervención intensiva sobre la actividad física Cohorte PREDIMED-Plus grant to Jordi Salas-Salvadó, the European Research Council (Advanced Research Grant 2014–2019, 340918) to Dr. Miguel A. Martínez-González, the Recercaixa Grant to Jordi Salas-Salvadó (2013ACUP00194), Grants from the Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (PI0458/2013, PS0358/2016, and PI0137/2018), a Grant from the Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEO/2017/017), a SEMERGEN Grant, EU-COST Action CA16112, a Grant of support to research groups no. 35/2011 from the Balearic Islands Government, Grants from Balearic Islands Health Research Institute IDISBA [FOLIUM, PRIMUS, SYNERGIA, and LIBERI], funds from the European Regional Development Fund (CIBEROBN CB06/03 and CB12/03) and from the European Commission (EAT2BENICE_H2020_SFS2016). Fundació La Marató TV3 (projects no. PI044003 and 201630.10). Laura Gallardo-Alfaro and Catalina M. Mascaró received FPU PhD Grants from the Spanish Ministry of Education. The funding sponsors had no role in the design of the study, in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of the data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.
Healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to report main lifestyle components and related factors according to the MetS severity. Cross-sectional analysis was done of baseline lifestyle factors from 5739 participants with overweight/obesity and MetS features (aged 55–75 years) included in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. Participants were categorized in tertiles according to a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, as well as a Dietary Inflammatory Index and depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) were measured. Diet quality was assessed using a 17-item energy-restricted MD questionnaire. Duration and intensity of PA was self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary behaviours were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses’ Health Study questionnaire. The 30 s chair stand test was also assessed. Participants with highest MetSSS showed higher values of cardiovascular risk factors (except for total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), depression risk, sedentary and TV viewing time, and lower moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Highest MetSSS participants tended to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern and tended to lower MD adherence. In addition, they showed lower carbohydrate and nut intake and higher intake of protein, saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, iodine, sodium, red and processed meat products, other oils different from olive oil and spirit alcoholic drinks. The highest MetS severity score was associated with lower moderate and vigorous LTPA and higher sedentary time and depression risk, as they tended to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern and lower MD adherence.