The Role of High Fat Diets and Liver Peptidase Activity in the Development of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Wistar Rats
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AuthorDomínguez Vías, Germán
ObesityHigh-fat dietOlive oilAminopeptidase activityRenin–angiotensin-system
Domínguez-Vías, G., Segarra, A. B., Ramírez-Sánchez, M., & Prieto, I. (2020). The Role of High Fat Diets and Liver Peptidase Activity in the Development of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Wistar Rats. Nutrients, 12(3), 636. [doi:10.3390/nu12030636]
SponsorshipThis work was supported by grant code: ACCIÓN 1 PAIUJA 2019 2020: BIO221.
High-fat diets (HFD) have been widely associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders and overweight. However, a high intake of sources that are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids has been suggested as a dietary agent that is able to positively influence energy metabolism and vascular function. The main objective of this study was to analyze the role of dietary fats on hepatic peptidases activities and metabolic disorders. Three diets: standard (S), HFD supplemented with virgin olive oil (VOO), and HFD supplemented with butter plus cholesterol (Bch), were administered over six months to male Wistar rats. Plasma and liver samples were collected for clinical biochemistry and aminopeptidase activities (AP) analysis. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was also determined by Western blot in liver samples. The diet supplement with VOO did not induce obesity, in contrast to the Bch group. Though the VOO diet increased the time that was needed to return to the basal levels of plasma glucose, the fasting insulin/glucose ratio and HOMA2-%B index (a homeostasis model index of insulin secretion and valuation of β-cell usefulness (% β-cell secretion)) were improved. An increase of hepatic membrane-bound dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity was found only in VOO rats, even if no differences in fasting plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were obtained. Both HFDs induced changes in hepatic pyroglutamyl-AP in the soluble fraction, but only the Bch diet increased the soluble tyrosyl-AP. Angiotensinase activities that are implicated in the metabolism of angiotensin II (AngII) to AngIV increased in the VOO diet, which was in agreement with the higher activity of insulin-regulated-AP (IRAP) in this group. Otherwise, the diet that was enriched with butter increased soluble gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and Leucyl-AP, iNOS expression in the liver, and plasma NO. In summary, VOO increased the hepatic activity of AP that were related to glucose metabolism (DPP4, angiotensinases, and IRAP). However, the Bch diet increased activities that are implicated in the control of food intake (Tyrosine-AP), the index of hepatic damage (Leucine-AP and GGT), and the expression of hepatic iNOS and plasma NO. Taken together, these results support that the source of fat in the diet affects several peptidases activities in the liver, which could be related to alterations in feeding behavior and glucose metabolism.