Carvacrol Prodrugs with Antimicrobial Activity Loaded on Clay Nanocomposites
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AuthorEusepi, Piera; Marinelli, Lisa; García Villén, Fátima; Borrego Sánchez, Ana María; Cacciatore, Ivana; Di Stefano, Antonio; Viseras Iborra, César Antonio
Eusepi, P.; Marinelli, L.; García-Villén, F.; Borrego-Sánchez, A.; Cacciatore, I.; Di Stefano, A.; Viseras, C. Carvacrol Prodrugs with Antimicrobial Activity Loaded on Clay Nanocomposites. Materials 2020, 13, 1793. [doi:10.3390/ma13071793]
SponsorshipMinistry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) FAR2018
Background: Carvacrol, an essential oil with antimicrobial activity against a wide range of pathogens, and its water soluble carvacrol prodrugs (WSCP1-3) were intercalated into montmorillonite (VHS) interlayers to improve their stability in physiological media and promote their absorption in the intestine. Methods: Intercalation of prodrugs by cation exchange with montmorillonite interlayer counterions was verified by X-ray powder diffraction and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Results: In vitro release studies demonstrated that montmorillonite successfully controlled the release of the adsorbed prodrugs and promoted their bioactivation only in the intestinal tract where carvacrol could develop its maximum antimicrobial activity. The amount of WSCP1, WSCP2, and WSCP3 released from VHS were 38%, 54%, and 45% at acid pH in 120 min, and 65%, 78%, and 44% at pH 6.8 in 240 min, respectively. Conclusions: The resultant hybrids successfully controlled conversion of the prodrugs to carvacrol, avoiding premature degradation of the drug.