Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa
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Four new taxaBasal cladesClassificationAscomycota
Wijayawardene, N. N., Hyde, K. D., Al-Ani, L. K. T., Tedersoo, L., Haelewaters, D., Rajeshkumar, K. C., ... & Tokarev, Y. S. (2020). Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa. MYCOSPHERE, 11(1), 1060-1456.
SponsorshipNalin N. Wijayawardene thanks Mushroom Research Foundation and National Science Foundation of China (No. NSFC 31950410558) for financially supporting this project. Kevin D. Hyde acknowledges the Foreign Experts Bureau of Yunnan Province, Foreign Talents Program (2018; grant no. YNZ2018002), Thailand Research grants entitled Biodiversity, phylogeny and role of fungal endophytes on above parts of Rhizophora apiculata and Nypa fruticans (grant no: RSA5980068), the future of specialist fungi in a changing climate: baseline data for generalist and specialist fungi associated with ants, Rhododendron species and Dracaena species (grant no: DBG6080013), Impact of climate change on fungal diversity and biogeography in the Greater Mekong Subregion (grant no: RDG6130001). H.T. Lumbsch thanks support by the Grainger Bioinformatics Center. E. Malosso is grateful to CAPES for financial support (grant no. 88881.062172/2014-01). B.T. Goto, G.A. Silva and K. Jobim, L.C. Maia acknowledges CNPq (Brazilian Scientific Council, grants no. 465.420/2014-1, 307.129/2015-2 and 408011/2016-5) and CAPES for support. The study was partially supported by the National Science Centre, Poland, under Grants No. 2015/17/D/NZ8/00778 and 2017/25/B/NZ8/00473 to Julia Pawłowska. The research of Martin Kukwa received support from the National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland (project no 2015/17/B/NZ8/02441). Alan J.L. Phillips acknowledges the support from UID/MULTI/04046/2019 Research Unit grant from FCT, Portugal to BioISI. H. Zhang is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project ID: NSF 31500017). S. Boonmee would like to thank the Thailand Research Fund (Project No. TRG6180001). Dong-Qin Dai and Li-Zhou Tang would like to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. NSFC 31760013, NSFC 31260087, NSFC 31460561), the Scientific Research Foundation of Yunnan Provincial Department of Education (2017ZZX186) and the Thousand Talents Plan, Youth Project of Yunnan Provinces for support. R. Phookamsak, M. Doilom, D. N. Wanasinghe, S.C. Karunarathna and J.C. Xu express sincere appreciations to Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (grant no. QYZDY-SSW-SMC014) for research financial support. R. Phookamsak thanks the Yunnan Provincial Department of Human Resources and Social Security (grant no. Y836181261), Chiang Mai University and National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) project code 31850410489 for research financial support. S.C. Kaunarathna thanks CAS President’s International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) for funding his postdoctoral research (No. 2018PC0006) and the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) for funding this work under the project code 31851110759. S. Tibpromma would like to thank the International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program (number Y9180822S1), CAS President’s International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) (number 2020PC0009), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation and the Yunnan Human Resources, and Social Security Department Foundation for funding her postdoctoral research. Yuri S. Tokarev, Elena S. Nassonova and Irma V. Issi are indebtful to Yuliya Y. Sokolova (Institute of Cytology RAS, St. Petersbug, Russia) and Anastasia V. Simakova (Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia) for kind permission of reproduction of electron microscopy images of Metchnikovella incurvata and Crepidulospora beklemishevi, respectively. Yuri S. Tokarev and Irma V. Issi thank Russian Foundation of Basic Research, grant number 17-04-00871 (taxonomy of Rozellomycota). Elena S. Nassonova thank Russian Foundation of Basic Research, grant number 18-04-01359 (early evolution of Microsporidia, phylogeny of Metchnikovellida). Adam Flakus and Pamela Rodriguez-Flakus are greatly indebted to all staff of the Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz and the SERNAP (http://sernap.gob.bo), for their generous cooperation providing permits, assistance and facilities support for scientific studies. The research of AF and PRF were financially supported by the National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland (DEC-2013/11/D/NZ8/03274). Adam Flakus and Pamela Rodriguez-Flakus received additional support under statutory funds from the W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland. The authors would like to thank Yunnan Innovation Platform for Development and Utilization of Symbiotic Fungi Resources for finance support. Li-Fang Zhang would like to thank grant-in-aid from Science and Technology Department of Yunnan Province (2018FD080) for finance support. Chun-Ying Deng thanks the Biodiversity Survey and Assessment Project of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, China (2019HJ2096001006). Yingqian Kang would like to thank Guizhou Scientific Plan Project [(2019) 2873]; Excellent Youth Talent Training Project of Guizhou Province [(2017) 5639]; Guiyang Science and Technology Project [(2017) No. 5-19]; Talent Base Project of Guizhou Province, China [FCJD2018-22]; Research Fund of Education Bureau of Guizhou Province, China [(2018) 481]. D. N. Wanasinghe would like to thank the CAS President’s International Fellowship Initiative (PIFI) for funding his postdoctoral research (number 2019PC0008), the National Science Foundation of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences for financial support under the following grants: 41761144055, 41771063 and Y4ZK111B01. Yuri K. Novozhilov and Oleg N. Shchepin acknowledge support from the Russian Foundation of Basic Research, project 18-04-01232 А. Ivana Kušan, Neven Matočec, Armin Mešić and Zdenko Tkalčec are grateful to Croatian Science Foundation for their financial support under the project grant HRZZ-IP-2018-01-1736 (ForFungiDNA). K. Tanaka would like to thank the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS 19K06802)
This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. The placement of all fungal genera is provided at the class-, order- and family-level. The described number of species per genus is also given. Notes are provided of taxa for which recent changes or disagreements have been presented. Fungus-like taxa that were traditionally treated as fungi are also incorporated in this outline (i.e. Eumycetozoa, Dictyosteliomycetes, Ceratiomyxomycetes and Myxomycetes). Four new taxa are introduced: Amblyosporida ord. nov. Neopereziida ord. nov. and Ovavesiculida ord. nov. in Rozellomycota, and Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. in Dictyosteliomycetes. Two different classifications (in outline section and in discussion) are provided for Glomeromycota and Leotiomycetes based on recent studies. The phylogenetic reconstruction of a four-gene dataset (18S and 28S rRNA, RPB1, RPB2) of 433 taxa is presented, including all currently described orders of fungi.