Gene Therapy in Cancer Treatment: Why Go Nano?
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Gene therapyGene deliveryTumor MicroenvironmentNanoparticlesNanomedicine
Roma-Rodrigues, C., Rivas-García, L., Baptista, P. V., & Fernandes, A. R. (2020). Gene Therapy in Cancer Treatment: Why Go Nano?. Pharmaceutics, 12(3), 233.
SponsorshipThis work was supported by the Applied Molecular Biosciences Unit - UCIBIO which is financed by national funds from FCT (UIDB/04378/2020), CRR (SFRH/BPD/124612/2016) and LRG (Inn-Indigo 00002/2015 RA Detect).
The proposal of gene therapy to tackle cancer development has been instrumental for the development of novel approaches and strategies to fight this disease, but the efficacy of the proposed strategies has still fallen short of delivering the full potential of gene therapy in the clinic. Despite the plethora of gene modulation approaches, e.g., gene silencing, antisense therapy, RNA interference, gene and genome editing, finding a way to efficiently deliver these effectors to the desired cell and tissue has been a challenge. Nanomedicine has put forward several innovative platforms to overcome this obstacle. Most of these platforms rely on the application of nanoscale structures, with particular focus on nanoparticles. Herein, we review the current trends on the use of nanoparticles designed for cancer gene therapy, including inorganic, organic, or biological (e.g., exosomes) variants, in clinical development and their progress towards clinical applications.