Skipping breakfast is associated with adiposity markers especially when sleep time is adequate in adolescents
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De, M. A. C. F., Carvalho, H. B., Yannis, M., Kurt, W., González-Gross, M., Gutierrez, A., ... & Moreno, L. A. (2019). Skipping breakfast is associated with adiposity markers especially when sleep time is adequate in adolescents. Scientific Reports (Nature Publisher Group), 9(1).
SponsorshipThe HELENA-CSS took place with the financial support of the European Community Sixth RTD Framework Program (contract FOOD-CT-2005-007034). This study was also supported by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Health: Maternal, Child Health and Development Network (numberRD08/0072) and grants from the Spanish Ministry of Education (EX-2008-0641) and the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation (20090635). And supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (JCI-2010-07055 and RYC-2010-05957). The authors thanked for the contribution of the HELENA Study Group. We are grateful for the financial support to the authors: Dr. Elsie C. O. Forkert was given a post-doctoral schoolarship from the Sao Paulo Research Foundation FAPESP (proc.2018/02887-6). Dr. Augusto César F. De Moraes was given a post-doctoral scholarship from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq: proc. 313772/2014-2) and the São Paulo Research Foundation FAPESP (proc. 2014/13367-2 and 2015/14319-4). Full Prof. Luis A. Moreno was given a scholarship of a visiting professor from São Paulo Research Foundation FAPESP (proc. 2015/11406-3). Dr Prof Heráclito B Carvalho is in receipt of an advanced scientist scholarship from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq: proc. 300951/2015-9).
Adolescence is a critical stage of development and has an important influence on energy balancerelated behaviours (EBRBs). When adolescents are associated with obesity it can lead to increased cardiometabolic risk. Here we assess if EBRBs adopted by adolescents included in a subsample are associated with markers of total and abdominal adiposity in a multicentre European study, Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA-CSS) and a Brazilian study, Brazilian Cardiovascular Adolescent Health (BRACAH study), and whether sleep duration influence the association between skipping breakfast, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, with total and abdominal obesity (AO). Multilevel linear regression models using fixed and random intercepts were used to analyse the association between markers of obesity and EBRBs. Skipping breakfast was the prevalent behaviour in association with obesity among European and Brazilian boys besides European girls, even after stratification by sleep time. Moreover, European boys who slept properly and skipped breakfast had an increased waist circumference (WC), while body mass index (BMI) increased in Brazilian boys. Among Brazilian boys less sleep was protective for total obesity (β = −0.93 kg/m2; 95% CI: −1.80; −0.07). European girls when they were more sedentary, showed an increase in WC, especially for those who reported they slept adequately. Skipping breakfast was associated with total and AO in adolescents independent of sleep duration.