Thermoreversible Gel-Loaded Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Dermal and Vaginal Candidiasis
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Thermoreversible gelPoloxamer 407Amphotericin BSkin and vaginal mucosa
Sosa, L., Calpena, A. C., Silva-Abreu, M., Espinoza, L. C., Rincón, M., Bozal, N., ... & Clares, B. (2019). Thermoreversible Gel-Loaded Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Dermal and Vaginal Candidiasis. Pharmaceutics, 11(7), 312.
SponsorshipThis research was funded by L’Agència de Gestiód’Ajuts Universitarisi de Recerca (AGAUR) grant number [SGR-2017 1744]. Lilian Sosa also expresses gratitude for the grant awarded by the Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology IN2UB number [2017.3.IN2UB.2] in the completion of her doctoral thesis. Marcelle Silva-Abreu acknowledges the support from the Coordination for the Improvement Personnel (CAPES-Brazil).
The present study was designed to develop a thermoreversible gel of Pluronic (P407) loaded amphotericin B (AmB-gel) for the dermal and vaginal treatment of candidiasis. P407 was used as a copolymer to exploit potential advantages related to increasing drug concentration in the tissue layer in order to provide a local effect. Parameters including internal structure, swelling, porosity, and short-term stability were determined. In addition, drug release profile and ex vivo skin and vaginal permeation studies were carried out. Antifungal efficacy was evaluated against strains of Candida spp. and atomic force microscopy (AFM) supported the results. The tolerance of AmB-gel was studied by evaluating biomechanical properties of skin and determining the irritation level in scarified rabbit skin supported by histological analysis. Results confirmed the development of a thermoreversible AmB-gel with high porosity exhibiting Newtonian behavior at 4 ºC and pseudoplasticity at 32 ºC as well as optimal stability for at least 90 days. The Amb-gel provided a sustained drug release following a Boltzmann sigmoidal model. Non permeation was observed in skin and vaginal mucosa, showing a high retained amount of AmB of 960.0 and 737.3 ug/g/cm2, respectively. In vitro antifungal efficacy showed that AmB-gel was more effective than Free-AmB in inhibiting strains of Candida spp. and these results were corroborated by AFM. Finally, tolerance studies showed that its application did not induce skin irritation nor alter its biophysical properties. Together, these results confirmed that AmB-gel could be proposed as a promising candidate for the clinical status in the treatment of skin and vaginal candidiasis.