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dc.contributor.authorZhao, Di
dc.contributor.authorAravindakshan, Atul
dc.contributor.authorHilpert, Markus
dc.contributor.authorOlmedo, Pablo
dc.contributor.authorRule, Ana M.
dc.contributor.authorNavas-Acien, Ana
dc.contributor.authorAherrera, Angela
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-04T11:45:42Z
dc.date.available2020-05-04T11:45:42Z
dc.date.issued2020-03
dc.identifier.citationZhao, D., Aravindakshan, A., Hilpert, M., Olmedo, P., Rule, A. M., Navas-Acien, A., & Aherrera, A. (2020). Metal/Metalloid Levels in Electronic Cigarette Liquids, Aerosols, and Human Biosamples: A Systematic Review. Environmental health perspectives, 128(3), 036001.es_ES
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10481/61758
dc.description.abstractBackground: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become popular, in part because they are perceived as a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes. An increasing number of studies, however, have found toxic metals/metalloids in e-cigarette emissions. Results: We identified 24 studies on metals/metalloids in e-liquid, e-cigarette aerosols, and human biosamples of e-cigarette users. Metal/metalloid levels, including aluminum, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, and zinc, were present in e-cigarette samples in the studies reviewed. Twelve studies reported metal/metalloid levels in e-liquids (bottles, cartridges, open wick, and tank), 12 studies reported metal/metalloid levels in e-cigarette aerosols (from cig-a-like and tank devices), and 4 studies reported metal/metalloid levels in human biosamples (urine, saliva, serum, and blood) of e-cigarette users. Metal/metalloid levels showed substantial heterogeneity depending on sample type, source of e-liquid, and device type. Metal/metalloid levels in e-liquid from cartridges or tank/open wicks were higher than those from bottles, possibly due to coil contact. Most metal/metalloid levels found in biosamples of e-cigarette users were similar or higher than levels found in biosamples of conventional cigarette users, and even higher than those found in biosamples of cigar users. Conclusion: E-cigarettes are a potential source of exposure to metals/metalloids. Differences in collection methods and puffing regimes likely contribute to the variability in metal/metalloid levels across studies, making comparison across studies difficult. Standardized protocols for the quantification of metal/metalloid levels from e-cigarette samples are needed.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by NIEHS/FDA grants R21ES029777 and R01ES030025, NIEHS grant P30ES009089, and a Johns Hopkins University Technology Transfer Seed Award. D. Z. was supported by the China Scholarship Council (201706190116). A. A. was supported by a grant from the MD Cigarette Restitution Fund (grantPHPA-G2034).es_ES
dc.language.isoenges_ES
dc.publisherU.S. Department of Health and Human Serviceses_ES
dc.rightsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es/*
dc.titleMetal/Metalloid Levels in Electronic Cigarette Liquids, Aerosols, and Human Biosamples: A Systematic Reviewes_ES
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/articlees_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccesses_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.1289/EHP5686


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