Altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns in gambling disorder: a multicenter study
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Li, Y., Wang, Z., Boileau, I., Dreher, J. C., Gelskov, S., Genauck, A., ... & de Lara, C. M. R. (2019). Altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns in gambling disorder: a multicenter study. Translational psychiatry, 9(1), 1-9.
SponsorshipY.L. was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31600929) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (010914380002). G.S. was supported by a Veni grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (Grant No. 016.155.218). J.J. was supported by the Academy of Finland (Grant No. 295580), the Finnish Medical Foundation, and the Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies. V.K. was supported by the Academy of Finland (Grant No. 256836) and the Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies. S.G. and H.R.S. were supported by the Danish Council for Independent Research in Social Sciences through a grant to Thomas Ramsøy (“Decision Neuroscience Project”; Grant No. 0601-01361B) and by the Lundbeck Foundation through a Grant of Excellence (“ContAct”; Grant No. R59 A5399). A.G. was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) HE2597/15–1, HE2597/15–2, and DFG Graduiertenkolleg 1589/2 “Sensory Computation in Neural Systems”. N.R.-S. was supported by a research grant by the Senatsverwaltung für Gesundheit und Soziales, Berlin, Germany (Grant No. 002–2008/I B 35). C.M.R.d.L. and J.C.P. were supported by a grant from the Spanish Government (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación; Convocatoria 2017 de Proyectos I+D de Excelencia, Spain; co-funded by the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional, FEDER, European Union; Grant No. PSI2017–85488-P). J.-C. D. was supported by “LABEX ANR-11-LABEX-0042” of Université de Lyon within the program Investissements d’Avenir (ANR-11-IDEX-007) operated by the French National Research Agency and by a grant from the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (Grant No. DPA20140629796).
Gambling disorder is a serious psychiatric condition characterized by decision-making and reward processing impairments that are associated with dysfunctional brain activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, it remains unclear whether OFC functional abnormalities in gambling disorder are accompanied by structural abnormalities. We addressed this question by examining the organization of sulci and gyri in the OFC. This organization is in place very early and stable across life, such that OFC sulcogyral patterns (classified into Types I, II, and III) can be regarded as potential pre-morbid markers of pathological conditions. We gathered structural brain data from nine existing studies, reaching a total of 165 individuals with gambling disorder and 159 healthy controls. Our results, supported by both frequentist and Bayesian statistics, show that the distribution of OFC sulcogyral patterns is skewed in individuals with gambling disorder, with an increased prevalence of Type II pattern compared with healthy controls. Examination of gambling severity did not reveal any significant relationship between OFC sulcogyral patterns and disease severity. Altogether, our results provide evidence for a skewed distribution of OFC sulcogyral patterns in gambling disorder and suggest that pattern Type II might represent a pre-morbid structural brain marker of the disease. It will be important to investigate more closely the functional implications of these structural abnormalities in future work.