Low-Cost Energy-Autonomous Sensor Nodes Through RF Energy Harvesting and Printed Technology
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AuthorMoreno-Cruz, Fernando; Romero Maldonado, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez Santiago, Noel; Morales Santos, Diego Pedro; Rivadeneyra Torres, Almudena
Jaime Lloret Mauri, Paulo E. Cruvinel, Almudena Rivadeneyra-Torres, Michael Niedermayer, Sandrine Bernardini, Matteo Tonezzer
Radio frequency energy harvestingprinted flexible sensorsIoTSprayed flexible technologyStore-and-use principle
SponsorshipThis work was partially supported by the ECSEL Joint Undertaking through the Electronic Component Systems for European Leadership Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 737434. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program and Slovakia, Netherlands, Spain, Italy. In addition, the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (MECD) and the European Union supported it through the pre-doctoral grant FPU16/01451 and the fellowship H2020-MSCA-IF-2017794885-SELFSENS.
The irruption of Internet of Things and 5G in our society comes along with several technological challenges to overcome. From an overall perspective, the low-cost and environmental friendliness of these technologies need to be ensured for their universal deployment in different areas, starting with the sensors and finishing with the power sources. To address these challenges, the production and maintenance of a great number of sensor nodes incur costs, which include manufacturing and integration in mass of elements and sub-blocks, changing or recharging of batteries, as well as management of natural resources and waste. In this article, we demonstrate how Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting (RFEH) and printed flexible technology (a growing technology for sensors) can solve these concerns through costeffective mass-production and utilization of energy harvesting for the development of energy-autonomous nodes, as part of a wireless sensor network. We present as illustration a sprayed flexible relative humidity sensor powered with RFEH under the store-and-use principle.