Assessment of the SFlt-1 and sFlt-1/25(OH)D Ratio as a Diagnostic Tool in Gestational Hypertension (GH), Preeclampsia (PE), and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)
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Walentowicz-Sadlecka, Malgorzata; et al. Assessment of the SFlt-1 and sFlt-1/25(OH)D Ratio as a Diagnostic Tool in Gestational Hypertension (GH), Preeclampsia (PE), and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Disease Markers, 2019: 5870239 (2019). [https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5870239]
Background. Placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), an antagonist of vascular endothelial growth factor, is considered an etiological factor of endothelial damage in pregnancy pathologies. An increase in the sFlt-1 level is associated with alterations of endothelial integrity. In contrast, vitamin D exerts a protective effect and low concentrations of 25(OH)D may have an adverse effect on common complications of pregnancy, such as gestational hypertension (GH), preeclampsia (PE), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of sFlt-1 in Polish women with physiological pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by GH, PE, and GDM. Moreover, we analyzed relationships between the maternal serum sFlt-1 level and the sFlt-1 to 25(OH)D ratio and the risk of GH and PE. Material and Methods. The study included 171 women with complicated pregnancies; among them are 45 with GH, 23 with PE, and 103 with GDM. The control group was comprised of 36 women with physiological pregnancies. Concentrations of sFl-1 and 25(OH)D were measured before delivery, with commercially available immunoassays. Results. Women with GH differed significantly from the controls in terms of their serum sFlt-1 levels (5797 pg/ml vs. 3531 pg/ml, ). Moreover, a significant difference in sFlt-1 concentrations was found between women with PE and those with physiological pregnancies (6074 pg/ml vs. 3531 pg/ml, ). GDM did not exert a statistically significant effect on serum sFlt-1 levels. Both logistic regression and ROC analysis demonstrated that elevated concentration of sFlt-1 was associated with greater risk of GH (, ) and PE (, ). Also, the sFlt-1 to 25(OH)D ratio, with the cutoff values of 652 (, ) and 653 (, ), respectively, was identified as a significant predictor of GH and PE. Conclusions. Determination of the sFlt-1/25(OH)D ratio might provide additional important information and, thus, be helpful in the identification of patients with PE and GH, facilitating their qualification for intensive treatment and improving the neonatal outcomes.