Role of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Therapeutic Agents: Potential Mechanisms of Action and Implications in Their Clinical Use
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AuthorJiménez-Puerta, Gonzalo José; Marchal Corrales, Juan Antonio; López Ruiz, Elena; Gálvez Martín, P.
Mesenchymal stromal cellsMechanism of actionHomingImmunomodulation
Jimenez-Puerta, G.J.; Marchal, J.A.; López-Ruiz, E.; Gálvez-Martín, P. Role of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Therapeutic Agents: Potential Mechanisms of Action and Implications in Their Clinical Use. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 445. [doi:10.3390/jcm9020445]
SponsorshipThis work was supported by the Fundación Mutua Madrileña (project FMM-AP17196-2019) and by the Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (FEDER funds, project RTC-2016-5451-1).
Due to the great therapeutic interest that involves the translation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into clinical practice, they have been widely studied as innovative drugs, in order to treat multiple pathologies. MSC-based cell therapy involves the administration of MSCs either locally or systemically into the receptor body where they can traffic and migrate towards the affected tissue and participate in the process of healing. The therapeutic effects of MSCs compromise of different mechanisms such as the functional integration of differentiated MSCs into diseased host tissue after transplantation, their paracrine support, and their impact on the regulation of both the innate and the acquired immune system. Here, we establish and provide recent advances about the principal mechanisms of action through which MSCs can perform their activity and effect as a therapeutic tool. The purpose of this review is to examine and discuss the MSCs capacity of migration, their paracrine effect, as well as MSC-mediated modifications on immune cell responses.