Protective effects of fermented goat milk on genomic stability, oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling in testis during anaemia recovery
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AuthorMoreno Fernández, Jorge; Muñoz Alférez, María José; López Aliaga, María Inmaculada; Díaz Castro, Javier
Moreno-Fernandez, J., Alférez, M. J., López-Aliaga, I., & Diaz-Castro, J. (2019). Protective effects of fermented goat milk on genomic stability, oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling in testis during anaemia recovery. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-11.
SponsorshipJorge Moreno-Fernandez was supported by fellowship from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (Spain) and is grateful to the Excellence Ph.D. Program “Nutrición y Ciencias de los Alimentos” from the University of Granada. This study was supported by Andalusian Government, Excellence Research Project No. P11-AGR-7648.
Oxidative stress is a harmful factor for male reproductive function, and a major cause of infertility. On the other hand, fermented goat milk has positive effects on anemia recovery and mineral metabolism. This study evaluated the effect of feeding rats with fermented milks during anaemia recovery on molecular mechanisms linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling in rats reproductive system. Forty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days (control group, receiving normal-Fe diet and Fe-deficient group, receiving low-Fe diet). Lately, rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets during 30 days. After feeding the fermented milks, Total antioxidant status (TAS) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) increased and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 15-F2t-isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) decreased in testis. DNA oxidative damage in testis germ cells was lower with fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk reduced IL-6 and TNF-α in control animals, increasing INF-γ in control and anaemic rats. NRF2 and PGC-1α protein levels increased in testis after fermented goat milk consumption in control and anaemic rats. Fermented goat milk also increased TAS and decreased oxidative damage, protecting the main testis cell bioconstituents (lipids, proteins, DNA, prostaglandins) from oxidative damage and reduced inflammatory activity, preventing injuries to testis germinal epithelium. Fermented goat milk enhanced lipolysis, fatty acids degradation and immune response, attenuating inflammatory signalling, representing a positive growth advantage for testicular cells.