Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea before and after Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: The ADIPOSA Study
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AuthorCarneiro Barrera, Almudena; Amaro Gahete, Francisco José; Sáez Roca, Germán; Martín Carrasco, Carlos; Buela Casal, Gualberto
Obstructive sleep apnoeaDepressionsAnxietyPositive affectEuthymiaDysthymia
Carneiro-Barrera, A., Amaro-Gahete, F. J., Sáez-Roca, G., Martín-Carrasco, C., R Ruiz, J., & Buela-Casal, G. (2019). Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea before and after Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: The ADIPOSA Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(12), 2099.
SponsorshipThis research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, grant/award number FPU16/01093 and FPU14/04172. The study was also partially supported by the University of Granada Plan Propio de Investigación 2019-Programa Contratos-Puentes; University of Granada Plan Propio de Investigación 2016-Excellence actions: Unit of Excellence on Exercise and Health (UCEES); and the Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Conocimiento, Investigación y Universidades (European Regional Development Funds, ref. SOMM17/6107/UGR).
The prevalence and treatment response of depression and anxiety symptoms in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), although widely addressed in research and clinical settings, still remain unclear due to overlapping symptoms. The ADIPOSA study sought to elucidate the presence of non-overlapping symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with moderate to severe OSA before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Forty-eight adults aged 18–80 (68.75% men) with moderate to severe OSA were enrolled in this twelve-week longitudinal single-arm trial and completed a full-night ambulatory sleep diagnostic test and an assessment of cognitive-affective depression and anxiety symptoms using the Beck-Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS), the State-Trait Depression Inventory (IDER) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We found no cognitive-affective depression or anxiety symptoms of clinical relevance at baseline. The amelioration of depression and anxiety symptoms after CPAP use was only statistically significant when considering anxiety-trait (p < 0.01; d = 0.296) and euthymia (p < 0.05; d = 0.402), the distinctive component of depression. Although dysthymia or high negative affect remained unchanged, CPAP may be effective at reducing the lack of positive affect, a well-established health-protective factor. However, not until depression and anxiety disorders related to OSA are accurately measured in clinical and research settings will it be possible to obtain robust conclusions on the occurrence and amelioration of these symptoms after treatment.