Validation of self-reported perception of proximity to industrial facilities: MCC-Spain study
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Self-reported perceptionResidential proximityCase-control studySensitivitySpecificityIndustrial pollutionMCC-Spain
Castelló, A., Pérez-Gómez, B., Lora-Pablos, D., Lope, V., Castaño-Vinyals, G., Vitelli-Storelli, F., ... & Lozano-Lorca, M. (2020). Validation of self-reported perception of proximity to industrial facilities: MCC-Spain study. Environment International, 135, 105316.
SponsorshipThis study was funded by: Scientific Foundation of the Spanish Association Against Cancer (Fundación Científica de la Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer (AECC) – EVP-1178/14), Spain's Health Research Fund (Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria – FIS 12/01416), the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Carlos III Institute of Health; PI12/00488, PI12/00265, PI12/01270, PI12/ 00715, PI12/00150, PI08/1770, PI08/0533, PI08/1359, PS09/00773, PS09/01286, PS09/01903, PS09/02078, PS09/01662, PI11/01403, PI11/01889, PI11/00226, PI11/01810, PI11/02213, PI14/01219 and Río Hortega CM13/00232), the Catalan Government 2009SGR1489 & 2014SGR756-F, the Fundación Marqués de Valdecilla (API 10/09), the ICGC International Cancer Genome Consortium CLL, the Junta de Castilla y León (LE22A10-2), the Consejería de Salud of the Junta de Andalucía (PI-0571), the Conselleria de Sanitat of the Generalitat Valenciana (AP 061/10), the Recercaixa (2010ACUP 310), and the Regional Government of the Basque Country by European Commission grants FOOD-CT-2006-036224-HIWATE.
Background: Self-reported data about environmental exposures can lead to measurement error. Objectives: To validate the self-reported perception of proximity to industrial facilities. Methods: MCC-Spain is a population-based multicase-control study of cancer in Spain that recruited incident cases of breast, colorectal, prostate, and stomach cancer. The participant’s current residence and the location of the industries were geocoded, and the linear distance between them was calculated (gold standard). The epidemiological questionnaire included a question to determine whether the participants perceived the presence of any industry at ≤1 km from their residences. Sensitivity and specificity of individuals' perception of proximity to industries were estimated as measures of classification accuracy, and the area under the curve (AUC) and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of misclassification were calculated as measures of discrimination. Analyses were performed for all cases and controls, and by tumor location, educational level, sex, industrial sector, and length of residence. Finally, aORs of cancer associated with real and self-reported distances were calculated to explore differences in the estimation of risk between these measures. Conclusions: Self-reported distance to industrial facilities can be a useful tool for hypothesis generation, but hypothesis-testing studies should use real distance to report valid conclusions. The sensitivity of the question might be improved with a more specific formulation.