Individual and environmental factors associated with death of cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain: a cohort study
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AutorMolina Soberanes, Daniel; Martínez Ruiz, Virginia Ana; Lardelli Claret, Pablo; Pulido Manzanero, José; Martín de los Reyes, Luis Miguel; Moreno Roldán, Elena; Jiménez Mejías, Eladio
Molina-Soberanes D, Martínez-Ruiz V, Lardelli- Claret P, et al. Individual and environmental factors associated with death of cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain: a cohort study. BMJ Open 2019;9:e028039
PatrocinadorThis work was partially supported by the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico [doctorate grant number 410668].
Objective To quantify the magnitude of associations between cyclist fatalities and both cyclist and environment related characteristics in Spain during the first 24 hours after a crash. Results Non-use of a helmet was directly associated with death (IDR 1.43, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.64). Among other cyclist characteristics, age after the third decade of life was also directly associated with death, especially in older cyclists (‘over 74’ category, IDR 4.61, 95% CI 3.49 to 6.08). The association with death did not differ between work-related cycling and other reasons for cycling. There was an inverse association with death for crashes in urban areas and on community roads. Any adverse meteorological condition also showed a direct association with death, whereas altered road surfaces showed an inverse association. Crashes during nighttime were directly associated with death, with a peak between 3:00 and 5:59 am (IDR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.41). Conclusions We found strong direct and inverse associations between several cyclist and environment related variables and death. These variables should be considered in efforts to prioritise public health measures aimed at reducing the number of cycling-related fatalities.