Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Properties of Essential Oils: A Systematic Review
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AuthorValdivieso Ugarte, Magdalena; Gómez Llorente, Carolina; Plaza Díaz, Julio; Gil Hernández, Ángel
Essential oilsVolatile oilsAntimicrobialAntioxidantsImmunomodulatoryFood preservationBiofilm
Valdivieso-Ugarte, M., Gomez-Llorente, C., Plaza-Díaz, J., & Gil, Á. (2019). Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Properties of Essential Oils: A Systematic Review. Nutrients, 11(11), 2786.
SponsorshipPart of the research currently in progress in the authors’ laboratory is funded by the company PAYMSA, S. A. through the grant #4501 managed by the Fundacion General Empresa-Universidad de Granada.
Essential oils (EOs) are a mixture of natural, volatile, and aromatic compounds obtained from plants. In recent years, several studies have shown that some of their benefits can be attributed to their antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and also immunomodulatory properties. Therefore, EOs have been proposed as a natural alternative to antibiotics or for use in combination with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria in animal feed and food preservation. Most of the results come from in vitro and in vivo studies; however, very little is known about their use in clinical studies. A systematic and comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase®, and Scopus from December 2014 to April 2019 using di erent combinations of the following keywords: essential oils, volatile oils, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulation, and microbiota. Some EOs have demonstrated their efficacy against several foodborne pathogens in vitro and model food systems; namely, the inhibition of S. aureus, V. cholerae, and C. albicans has been observed. EOs have shown remarkable antioxidant activities when used at a dose range of 0.01 to 10 mg/mL in cell models, which can be attributed to their richness in phenolic compounds. Moreover, selected EOs exhibit immunomodulatory activities that have been mainly attributed to their ability to modify the secretion of cytokines.