Presence of Bisphenol A and Parabens in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: An Exploratory Study of Potential Sources of Exposure
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AuthorIribarne Durán, Luz María; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Peña Caballero, Manuela; Molina Molina, José Manuel; Jiménez Díaz, Inmaculada; Vela-Soria, Fernando; Serrano, Laura; Hurtado, José A.; Fernández Cabrera, Mariana Fátima; Freire, Carmen; Olea Serrano, Nicolás
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Iribarne-Durán, L. M., Artacho-Cordón, F., Peña-Caballero, M., Molina-Molina, J. M., Jiménez-Díaz, I., Vela-Soria, F., ... & Olea, N. (2019). Presence of Bisphenol A and Parabens in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: An Exploratory Study of Potential Sources of Exposure. Environmental health perspectives, 127(11), 117004.
SponsorshipThis research was funded in part by grants from the European Union Commission (The European Human Biomonitoring Initiative H2020-EJP-HBM4EU), the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Institute of Health Carlos III - FEDER (PI16/01820, PI16/01812, PI16/01858, PI17/01743, and PI17/01526), the Andalusia Regional Government (PI-0538-2017), and the Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP). The authors are also grateful to the Carlos III Institute of Health (ISCIII) for the predoctoral research contract (FI17/00316) granted to L.M.I.-D., the postdoctoral research contract granted to C.F. (Miguel Servet-FEDER fund MS16/00085), and the José María Segovia de Arana contract granted to N.O. (INT18/00060).
Newborns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are in contact with a variety of medical products whose production might include synthetic chemicals with hormonal activity. BPA was found in three-fifths and PBs in four-fifths of tested NICU items, and ∼25% and ∼10% of extracts evidenced estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity, respectively. The highest BPA content was found in the three-way stopcock (>7.000 ng/g), followed by patterned transparent film dressing, gastro-duodenal feeding tubes, sterile gloves, single-lumen umbilical catheters, and intravenous (IV) infusion extension sets (concentrations ranged from 100 to 700 ng/g BPA). A total PB concentration (∑PBs) >100 ng/g was observed in several items, including light therapy protection glasses, patterned transparent film dressing, winged IV catheters, IV infusion extension sets, and textile tape. The highest estrogenic activity [>450 pM estradiol equivalent (E2eq)] was found in small dummy nipples, three-way stopcocks, and patterned transparent film dressing and the highest anti-androgenic activity [>5 mM procymidone equivalent units per gram (Proceq/g)] in small dummy nipples and three-way stopcocks. According to these findings, neonates might be exposed to multiple sources of BPA and PBs in NICUs via inhalation, dermal, oral, and IV/parenteral routes. There is a need to address the future health implications for these extremely vulnerable patients and to adopt precautionary preventive measures as a matter of urgency.