Short-Term Low Temperature Induces Nitro-Oxidative Stress that Deregulates the NADP-Malic Enzyme Function by Tyrosine Nitration in Arabidopsis thaliana
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AuthorBegara-Morales, Juan C.; Sánchez Calvo, Beatriz; Gómez Rodríguez, María Victoria; Chaki, Mounira; Valderrama, Raquel; López Jaramillo, Javier; Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.
NADP malic enzymeLow temperatureNitric oxideTyrosine nitrationPeroxynitriteReactive oxygen speciesReactive nitrogen speciesNitro-oxidative stress
Begara-Morales, J.C.; Sánchez-Calvo, B.; Gómez-Rodríguez, M.V.; Chaki, M.; Valderrama, R.; Mata-Pérez, C.; López-Jaramillo, J.; Corpas, F.J.; Barroso, J.B. Short-Term Low Temperature Induces Nitro-Oxidative Stress that Deregulates the NADP-Malic Enzyme Function by Tyrosine Nitration in Arabidopsis thaliana. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 448. [doi:10.3390/antiox8100448]
SponsorshipThis research was funded by ERDF grants co-financed by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (project PGC2018-096405-B-I00) and the Junta de Andalucía (group BIO286) in Spain. Research in FJ-C lab is supported by an ERDF-co-financed grant from the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (AGL2015-65104-P) and Junta de Andalucía (group BIO-192), Spain. Postdoctoral researcher J.B.-M. was funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Spain) within Juan de la Cierva-Incorporación program (IJCI-2015-23438).
Low temperature (LT) negatively affects plant growth and development via the alteration of the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). Among RNS, tyrosine nitration, the addition of an NO2 group to a tyrosine residue, can modulate reduced nicotinamide-dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-generating systems and, therefore, can alter the levels of NADPH, a key cofactor in cellular redox homeostasis. NADPH also acts as an indispensable electron donor within a wide range of enzymatic reactions, biosynthetic pathways, and detoxification processes, which could affect plant viability. To extend our knowledge about the regulation of this key cofactor by this nitric oxide (NO)-related post-translational modification, we analyzed the effect of tyrosine nitration on another NADPH-generating enzyme, the NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), under LT stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exposed to short-term LT (4 °C for 48 h), a 50% growth reduction accompanied by an increase in the content of superoxide, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite, in addition to diminished cytosolic NADP-ME activity, were found. In vitro assays confirmed that peroxynitrite inhibits cytosolic NADP-ME2 activity due to tyrosine nitration. The mass spectrometric analysis of nitrated NADP-ME2 enabled us to determine that Tyr-73 was exclusively nitrated to 3-nitrotyrosine by peroxynitrite. The in silico analysis of the Arabidopsis NADP-ME2 protein sequence suggests that Tyr73 nitration could disrupt the interactions between the specific amino acids responsible for protein structure stability. In conclusion, the present data show that short-term LT stress affects the metabolism of ROS and RNS, which appears to negatively modulate the activity of cytosolic NADP-ME through the tyrosine nitration process