A European aerosol phenomenology – 6: scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles from 28 ACTRIS sites
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European Geosciences Union
Pandolfi, M., Alados-Arboledas, L., Alastuey, A., Andrade, M., Angelov, C., Artiñano, B., Backman, J., Baltensperger, U., Bonasoni, P., Bukowiecki, N., Collaud Coen, M., Conil, S., Coz, E., Crenn, V., Dudoitis, V., Ealo, M., Eleftheriadis, K., Favez, O., Fetfatzis, P., Fiebig, M., Flentje, H., Ginot, P., Gysel, M., Henzing, B., Hoffer, A., Holubova Smejkalova, A., Kalapov, I., Kalivitis, N., Kouvarakis, G., Kristensson, A., Kulmala, M., Lihavainen, H., Lunder, C., Luoma, K., Lyamani, H., Marinoni, A., Mihalopoulos, N., Moerman, M., Nicolas, J., O'Dowd, C., Petäjä, T., Petit, J.-E., Pichon, J. M., Prokopciuk, N., Putaud, J.-P., Rodríguez, S., Sciare, J., Sellegri, K., Swietlicki, E., Titos, G., Tuch, T., Tunved, P., Ulevicius, V., Vaishya, A., Vana, M., Virkkula, A., Vratolis, S., Weingartner, E., Wiedensohler, A., and Laj, P.: A European aerosol phenomenology – 6: scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles from 28 ACTRIS sites, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877-7911, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-7877-2018, 2018.
SponsorshipThis project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 654109, ACTRIS (project no. 262254), ACTRIS-PPP (project no. 739530). We thank the International Foundation High Altitude Research Stations JFJ (Jungfraujoch) and Gornergrat (HFSJG), which made it possible to carry out the experiments at the High Altitude Research JFJ Station and the support of MeteoSwiss within the Swiss programme of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) of the WMO. The MAD (Madrid) station is co-financed by the PROACLIM (CGL2014-52877-R) project. The SMR (Hyytiälä) station acknowledges BACCHUS (project no. 603445), CRAICC (project no. 26060) and the Academy of Finland (project no. 3073314). The UGR (Granada) station is co-financed by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through project CGL2016-81092-R. Measurements at MSY (Montseny) and MSA (Montsec) stations were supported by the MINECO (Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness) and FEDER funds under the PRISMA project (CGL2012-39623-C02/00) and under the HOUSE project (CGL2016-78594-R), by the MAGRAMA (Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment) and by the Generalitat de Catalunya (AGAUR 2014 SGR33, AGAUR 2017 SGR41 and the DGQA). Measurements at IZO (Izaña) were supported by the AEROATLAN project (CGL2015-17 66229-P), co-funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain and the European Regional Development Fund. Station KOS (Košetice) is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the project to support the national research infrastructure ACTRIS – participation of the Czech Republic (ACTRIS-CZ – LM2015037). Measurements at PUY (Puy de Dôme) were partly supported by CNRS-INSU, University Clermont-Auvergne, OPGC and the french CLAP programme. The PAL (Pallas) station acknowledges KONE Foundation, Academy of Finland (project no. 269095 and no. 296302). CHC (Mt Chacaltaya) station received support from Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) under both Jeune Equipe programme attributed to LFA and support to ACTRIS-FR programme. CHC received grants from Labex OSUG@2020 (Investissements d'avenir – ANR10 LABX56). Marco Pandolfi is funded by a Ramón y Cajal Fellowship (RYC-2013-14036) awarded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. The authors would like to express their gratitude to David Carslaw and Karl Ropkins for providing the OpenAir software used in this paper (Carslaw and Ropkins, 2012; Carslaw, 2012). We also thank the co-editor Andreas Petzold and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.
This paper presents the light-scattering properties of atmospheric aerosol particles measured over the past decade at 28 ACTRIS observatories, which are located mainly in Europe. The data include particle light scattering (σsp) and hemispheric backscattering (σbsp) coefficients, scattering Ångström exponent (SAE), backscatter fraction (BF) and asymmetry parameter (g). An increasing gradient of σsp is observed when moving from remote environments (arctic/mountain) to regional and to urban environments. At a regional level in Europe, σsp also increases when moving from Nordic and Baltic countries and from western Europe to central/eastern Europe, whereas no clear spatial gradient is observed for other station environments. The SAE does not show a clear gradient as a function of the placement of the station. However, a west-to-east-increasing gradient is observed for both regional and mountain placements, suggesting a lower fraction of fine-mode particle in western/south-western Europe compared to central and eastern Europe, where the fine-mode particles dominate the scattering. The g does not show any clear gradient by station placement or geographical location reflecting the complex relationship of this parameter with the physical properties of the aerosol particles. Both the station placement and the geographical location are important factors affecting the intra-annual variability. At mountain sites, higher σsp and SAE values are measured in the summer due to the enhanced boundary layer influence and/or new particle-formation episodes. Conversely, the lower horizontal and vertical dispersion during winter leads to higher σsp values at all low-altitude sites in central and eastern Europe compared to summer. These sites also show SAE maxima in the summer (with corresponding g minima). At all sites, both SAE and g show a strong variation with aerosol particle loading. The lowest values of g are always observed together with low σsp values, indicating a larger contribution from particles in the smaller accumulation mode. During periods of high σsp values, the variation of g is less pronounced, whereas the SAE increases or decreases, suggesting changes mostly in the coarse aerosol particle mode rather than in the fine mode. Statistically significant decreasing trends of σsp are observed at 5 out of the 13 stations included in the trend analyses. The total reductions of σsp are consistent with those reported for PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations over similar periods across Europe.