Relationship between menopause and periodontal disease: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese population
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AuthorAlves, Ricardo C.; Félix, Sergio; Rodríguez Archilla, Alberto; Oliveira, Pedro; Brito, José; Martins Dos Santos, José Antonio
Alves, R.; et al. Relationship between menopause and periodontal disease: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese population. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 8(7): 11412-11419 (2015). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/49217]
Background: Menopause is associated with important systemic and oral changes. Many researchers have tried to evaluate the influence of hormonal changes associated with menopause in the periodontium, however results are contradictory. Objective: Evaluate the possible effects of menopause on the severity of periodontal disease and tooth loss, by considering several general, oral and periodontal parameters. Methods: 102 women with chronic periodontitis, and at least six teeth, were divided into two groups: a study group (SG) consisting of 68 menopausal women and a control group (CG) consisting of 34 premenopausal women. The participants had extensive anamnesis, made by a single senior periodontologist, which collected demographic data, medical and gynaecological history and habits. Additionally, oral and periodontal parameters including: number of teeth, plaque index, presence of calculi, probing depth, bleeding on probing, gingival recession and attachment loss were recorded. The following statistical tests were used: Chi-square, Fisher’s t-test for independent samples, non-parametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney, and linear multiple regression. Results: The number of teeth was significantly lower in postmenopausal women (SG 10.8 ± 5.9, CG 6.8 ± 4.6), however, after adjusting for age, smoking and plaque index, the difference was no longer statistically significant (P=0.169). The attachment loss was slightly higher in the study group, although the difference is not significant (SG 4.31 ± 1.08, CG 4.05 ± 1.28). Conclusions: Menopause does not appear to significantly influence the severity of periodontal disease and tooth loss. Other factors may exert a greater influence on the progression of periodontal disease rather than menopause itself.