Four-dimensional distribution of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic cloud over Europe observed by EARLINET
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Multiwavelength raman lidarIce nucleation propertiesNorthern alpine regionMeasurementsStratospheric aerosolOptical propertiesIberian PeninsulaAsh dispersionEruptionPlume
Pappalardo, G.; et. al. Four-dimensional distribution of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic cloud over Europe observed by EARLINET. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 4429-4450 (2013). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/31817]
SponsorshipThe financial support for EARLINET by the European Union under grant RICA 025991 in the Sixth Framework Programme is gratefully acknowledged. Since 2011 EARLINET has been integrated in the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure Project supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 262254. The authors acknowledge the ESA financial support under the ESRIN contract 21769/08/I-OL and 22202/09/I-EC. Additional financial support has been received from the Andalusia Regional Government through project P10-RNM-6299 and from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology through projects CGL2010-18782, and CSD2007-00067.
The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April–May 2010 represents a "natural experiment" to study the impact of volcanic emissions on a continental scale. For the first time, quantitative data about the presence, altitude, and layering of the volcanic cloud, in conjunction with optical information, are available for most parts of Europe derived from the observations by the European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork (EARLINET). Based on multi-wavelength Raman lidar systems, EARLINET is the only instrument worldwide that is able to provide dense time series of high-quality optical data to be used for aerosol typing and for the retrieval of particle microphysical properties as a function of altitude. In this work we show the four-dimensional (4-D) distribution of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic cloud in the troposphere over Europe as observed by EARLINET during the entire volcanic event (15 April–26 May 2010). All optical properties directly measured (backscatter, extinction, and particle linear depolarization ratio) are stored in the EARLINET database available at http://www.earlinet.org. A specific relational database providing the volcanic mask over Europe, realized ad hoc for this specific event, has been developed and is available on request at http://www.earlinet.org. During the first days after the eruption, volcanic particles were detected over Central Europe within a wide range of altitudes, from the upper troposphere down to the local planetary boundary layer (PBL). After 19 April 2010, volcanic particles were detected over southern and south-eastern Europe. During the first half of May (5–15 May), material emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano was detected over Spain and Portugal and then over the Mediterranean and the Balkans. The last observations of the event were recorded until 25 May in Central Europe and in the Eastern Mediterranean area. The 4-D distribution of volcanic aerosol layering and optical properties on European scale reported here provides an unprecedented data set for evaluating satellite data and aerosol dispersion models for this kind of volcanic events.