Seasonal analysis of the atmosphere during five years by using microwave radiometry over a mid-latitude site
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AuthorBedoya-Velásquez, Andrés Esteban; Navas-Guzmán, F.; de Arruda Moreira, G.; Román, R.; Cazorla, A.; Ortiz-Amezcua, P.; Benavent-Oltra, J.A.; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Olmo-Reyes, F.J.; Foyo-Moreno, I.; Montilla-Rosero, E.; Hoyos, C.D.; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis
integrated water vapor (IWV)temperature and relative humiditymicrowave radiometer
SponsorshipAndalusia Regional Government through project P12-RNM-2409; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through projects CGL2013-45410-R, CGL2015-73250-JIN and CGL2016-81092-R; Juan de la Cierva grant IJCI-2016-30007
This work focuses on the analysis of the seasonal cycle of temperature and relative humidity (RH) profiles and integrated water vapor (IWV) obtained from microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements over the mid-latitude city of Granada, southern Spain. For completeness the study, the maximum atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLHmax) is also included. To this end, we have firstly characterized the HATPRO-RPG MWR errors using 55 co-located radiosondes (RS) by means of the mean-bias (biasbar) profile and the standard deviation (SDbias) profile classified under all-weather conditions and cloud-free conditions. This characterization pointed out that temperature from HATPRO-MWR presents a very low biasbar respects RS mostly below 2.0 km agl, ranging from positive to negative values under all-weather conditions (from 1.7 to -0.4 K with SDbias up to 3.0 K). Under cloud-free conditions, the bias was very similar to that found under all-weather conditions (1.8 to -0.4 K) but with smaller SDbias (up to 1.1 K). The same behavior is also seen in this lower part (ground to 2.0 km agl) for RH. Under all-weather conditions, the mean RH bias ranged from 3.0 to -4.0% with SDbias between 10 and 16.3% while under cloud-free conditions the bias ranged from 2.0 to -0.4% with SDbias from 0.5 to 13.3%. Above 2.0 km agl, the SDbias error increases considerably up to 4 km agl (up to -20%), and then decreases slightly above 7.0 km agl (up to -5%). In addition, IWV values from MWR were also compared with the values obtained from the integration of RS profiles, showing a better linear fit under cloud-free conditions (R2 = 0.96) than under all-weather conditions (R2 = 0.82). The mean bias under cloud-free conditions was -0.80 kg/m2 while for all-weather conditions it was -1.25 kg/m2. Thus, the SDbiasfor all the statistics (temperature, RH and IWV) of the comparison between MWR and RS presented higher values for all-weather conditions than for cloud-free conditions ones. It points out that the presence of clouds is a key factor to take into account when MWR products are used. The second part of this work is devoted to a seasonal variability analysis over five years, leading us to characterize thermodynamically the troposphere over our site. This city atmosphere presents a clear seasonal cycle where temperature, ABLHmax and IWV increase from winter to summer and decrease in autumn, meanwhile RH decreases along the warmer seasons. This city presents cold winters (mean daily maximum temperature: 10.6 ± 1.1 °C) and dry/hot summers (mean daily maximum temperature of 28.8 ± 0.9 °C and mean daily maximum of surface RH up to 55.0 ± 6.0%) at surface (680 m asl). Moreover, considering temporal trends, our study pointed out that only temperature and RH showed a linear increase in winters with a mean-rate of (0.5 ± 0.1) °C/year and (3.4 ± 1.7) %/year, respectively, from ground to 2.0 km agl, meanwhile IWV presented a linear increase of 1.0 kg·m-2/year in winters, 0.78 kg·m-2/year in summers and a linear decrease in autumns of -0.75 kg·m-2/year.