General-purpose passive wireless point–of–care platform based on smartphone
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AuthorEscobedo, Pablo; Erenas, Miguel M; Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Carvajal, Miguel A; González-Chocano, Sara; Capitan-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; Palma, Alberto J
Passive point-of-care platformElectrochemiluminescenceElectrochemical techniquesSmartphoneEnergy harvestingNear-field communication
Escobedo, P. [et al.]. General-purpose passive wireless point–of–care platform based on smartphone. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 141 (2019) 111360
SponsorshipThis study was supported by projects from the Spanish MINECO (CTQ2016-78754-C2-1- R), European Regional Development Funds (ERDF). and Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport for a R&D predoctoral grant (FPU13/05032)
A versatile, compact and low-cost analytical platform has been designed, tested and validated to be used in the point-of-care settings. This passive measurement system is powered and complemented by a standard smartphone including a programmed application for measurement configuration and data processing as well as wireless results sharing. Electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence analytical techniques can be configured and realized by this platform that employs standard screen-printed electrodes for the sample managing and off-the-shelf electronic components. The power, electrical and optical signal processing have been studied in depth. The system can harvest energy up to 22.5 mW, set up a voltage in the range of ±1.15 V, and measure potentials in a range of 600 mV with an uncertainty of 1 mV, and current from 2 μA to 0.75 mA with a resolution of 1.1 μA. Moreover, standard tests have been performed to the platform consisting of amperometric, potentiometric, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemiluminescent analytical techniques, showing excellent agreement with a reference instrument. Finally, our design has also been applied to glucose, pH and H2O2 determinations, providing the full analytical parameters which are in very good agreement with the reference instrument results. Ranges (0.065–0.75 M, 0.62–100 mM and 3–9 pH units for glucose, H2O2 and pH, respectively) and limits of detection (0.024 M and 0.03 mM for glucose and H2O2, respectively) make this low-cost platform (<US$8) suitable for analytical applications.