On the Interactions and Synergism between Phases of Carbon–Phosphorus–Titanium Composites Synthetized from Cellulose for the Removal of the Orange-G Dye
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AuthorHamad, Hesham; Castelo-Quibén, Jesica; Morales-Torres, Sergio; Carrasco Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Cadenas, Agustín F.; Maldonado-Hódar, Francisco J.
Microcrystalline celluloseChemical functionalizationPolyphosphatesSynergismPhysicochemical propertiesOrange GPhotocatalysis
Hamad, H.[et al.]. On the Interactions and Synergism between Phases of Carbon–Phosphorus–Titanium Composites Synthetized from Cellulose for the Removal of the Orange-G Dye. Materials 2018, 11, 1766; doi:10.3390/ma11091766.
SponsorshipThis research is supported by the FEDER and Spanish projects CTQ2013-44789-R (MINECO) and P12-RNM-2892 (Junta de Andalucía). H.H. gratefully thanks the support of Erasmus-Mundus (Al-Idrisi II) project for PhD scholarship. S.M.-T. acknowledges the financial support from University of Granada (Reincorporación Plan Propio). J.C.-Q. is grateful to the Junta de Andalucía for her research contract (P12-RNM-2892).
Carbon–phosphorus–titanium composites (CPT) were synthesized by Ti-impregnation and carbonization of cellulose. Microcrystalline cellulose used as carbon precursor was initially dissolved by phosphoric acid (H3PO4) to favor the Ti-dispersion and the simultaneous functionalization of the cellulose chains with phosphorus-containing groups, namely phosphates and polyphosphates. These groups interacted with the Ti-precursor during impregnation and determined the interface transformations during carbonization as a function of the Ti-content and carbonization temperature. Amorphous composites with high surface area and mesoporosity were obtained at low Ti-content (Ti:cellulose ratio = 1) and carbonization temperature (500ºC), while in composites with Ti:cellulose ratio = 12 and 800ºC, Ti-particles reacted with the cellulose groups leading to different Ti-crystalline polyphosphates and a marked loss of the porosity. The efficiency of composites in the removal of the Orange G dye in solution by adsorption and photocatalysis was discussed based on their physicochemical properties. These materials were more active than the benchmark TiO2 material (Degussa P25), showing a clear synergism between phases.