Genetics of immunoglobulin-A vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura): An updated review
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AuthorLópez-Mejías, Raquel; Castañeda, Santos; Genre, Fernanda; Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Carmona López, Francisco David; Llorca, Javier; Blanco, Ricardo; Martín, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.
GeneticsImmunoglobulin-A vasculitisHenoch-Schönlein purpura
López-Mejías, Raquel; et.al. Genetics of immunoglobulin-A vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura): An updated review. Autoimmunity Reviews 17 (2018) 301–315 [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/51942]
SponsorshipRL-Mis supported by the Miguel Servet I programme of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the grant CP16/ 00033. FG is recipient of a Sara Borrell postdoctoral fellowship from the “Instituto Carlos III de Salud” at the Spanish Ministry of Health (Spain) (CD15/00095). SR-M is supported by funds from the RETICS Program (RIER) (RD16/0012/0009). FDC is supported by the Ramón y Cajal programme of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the grant RYC-2014-16458.
Immunoglobulin-A vasculitis (IgAV) is classically a childhood small-sized blood vessel vasculitis with predominant involvement of the skin. Gastrointestinal and joint manifestations are common in patients diagnosed with this condition. Nephritis, which is more severe in adults, constitutes the most feared complication of this vasculitis. The molecular bases underlying the origin of IgAV have not been completely elucidated. Nevertheless, several pieces of evidence support the claim that genes play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region is, until now, the main genetic factor associated with IgAV pathogenesis. Besides a strong associationwith HLA class II alleles, specifically HLA-DRB1 alleles, HLA class I alleles also seemto influence on the predisposition of this disease. Other gene polymorphisms located outside the HLA region, including those coding cytokines, chemokines, adhesionmolecules aswell as those related to T-cells, aberrant glycosylation of IgA1, nitric oxide production, neoangiogenesis, renin-angiotensin system and lipid, Pyrin and homocysteine metabolism, may be implicated not only in the predisposition to IgAV but also in its severity. An update of the current knowledge of the genetic component associated with the pathogenesis of IgAV is detailed in this review.