Spatial and temporal variability of carbonaceous aerosols: assessing the impact of biomass burning in the urban environment
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AutorTitos Vela, Gloria; Águila, A. del; Cazorla, A.; Lyamani, H.; Casquero-Vera, J. A.; Colombi, C.; Cuccia, E.; Gianelle, V.; Močnik, G.; Alastuey, A.; Olmo Reyes, Francisco José; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas
Biomass burningFossil fuelCarbonaceous matterAethalometerÅngström exponent
Titos Vela, G.; et al. Spatial and temporal variability of carbonaceous aerosols: Assessing the impact of biomass burning in the urban environment. Science of the Total Environmental, 578: 613-625 (2017). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/47096]
PatrocinadorThis research was partially supported by the Andalusia Regional Government through projects P10-RNM-6299 and P12-RNM-2409, by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and FEDER through project CGL2013_45410-R; by EUREKA and the Slovenian Ministry of Economic Development and Technology grants (Eurostars grant E!4825 FC Aeth, JR-KROP grant 3211-11-000519); and by European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement No. 654109, ACTRIS-2. The authors would like to thank Air Quality Service from Junta de Andalucía (Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio) and Vicerrectorado de Política Científica e Investigación from the University of Granada for their support in the installation of the Aethalometer at PC and GV, respectively.; G. Titos was partially funded by Programa del Plan Propio de Investigación “Contrato Puente” of the University of Granada and by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under postdoctoral program Juan de la Cierva – Formación (FJCI-2014-20819).
Biomass burning (BB) is a significant source of atmospheric particles in many parts of the world. Whereas many studies have demonstrated the importance of BB emissions in central and northern Europe, especially in rural areas, its impact in urban air quality of southern European countries has been sparsely investigated. In this study, highly time resolved multi-wavelength absorption coefficients together with levoglucosan (BB tracer) mass concentrations were combined to apportion carbonaceous aerosol sources. The Aethalometer model takes advantage of the different spectral behaviour of BB and fossil fuel (FF) combustion aerosols. The model was found to be more sensitive to the assumed value of the aerosol Ångström exponent (AAE) for FF (AAEff) than to the AAE for BB (AAEbb). As result of various sensitivity tests the model was optimized with AAEff = 1.1 and AAEbb = 2. The Aethalometer model and levoglucosan tracer estimates were in good agreement. The Aethalometer model was further applied to data from three sites in Granada urban area to evaluate the spatial variation of CMff and CMbb (carbonaceous matter from FF or BB origin, respectively) concentrations within the city. The results showed that CMbb was lower in the city centre while it has an unexpected profound impact on the CM levels measured in the suburbs (about 40%). Analysis of BB tracers with respect to wind speed suggested that BB was dominated by sources outside the city, to the west in a rural area. Distinguishing whether it corresponds to agricultural waste burning or with biomass burning for domestic heating was not possible. This study also shows that although traffic restrictions measures contribute to reduce carbonaceous concentrations, the extent of the reduction is very local. Other sources such as BB, which can contribute to CM as much as traffic emissions, should be targeted to reduce air pollution.