Black carbon radiative forcing derived from AERONET measurements and models over an urban location in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula
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Aerosol particlesAnthropogenic aerosolBlack carbonShortwave radiative forcing
Valenzuela, A.; et al. Black carbon radiative forcing derived from AERONET measurements and models over an urban location in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Research, 191: 44-56 (2017). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/47094]
PatrocinadorThis work was supported by the Andalusia Regional Government through project P12-RNM-2409, by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through projects CGL2013-45410-R and CGL2016-81092-R and by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme through project ACTRIS-2 (grant agreement No. 654109). The authors thankfully acknowledge the FEDER program for the instrumentation used in this work. Antonio Valenzuela thanks Universidad de Granada for the award of a postdoctoral grant (“Plan Propio. Programa 8. Convocatoria 2014”). The work is co-funded by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund, included in the COMPETE 2020 (Operational Program Competitiveness and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID/GEO/04683/2013) with the reference POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007690. CIMEL Calibration was performed at the AERONET-EUROPE calibration center, supported by ACTRIS (European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 262254. The authors express gratitude to the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php). The author acknowledges the funding provided by the Institute of Earth Sciences (ICT), under contracts UID/GEO/04683/2013 with FCT (the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation), and COMPETEPOCI-01-0145-FEDER-007690.
This paper provides an account of observed variations in Black carbon (BC) aerosol concentrations and their induced radiative forcing for the first time over Granada a measurement site in Southeastern Iberian Peninsula. Column-integrated BC concentrations were retrieved for the period 2005–2012. Monthly averages of BC concentrations (± one standard deviation) ranged from higher values in January and December with 4.0 ± 2.5 and 4 ± 3 mg/m², respectively, to lower values in July and August with 1.6 ± 1.2 and 2.0 ± 0.5 mg/m², respectively. This reduction is not only observed in the average values, but also in the median, third and first quartiles. The average BC concentration in winter (3.8 ± 0.6 mg/m²) was substantially higher than in summer (1.9 ± 0.3 mg/m²), being the eight-year average of 2.9 ± 0.9 mg/m². The reduction in the use of fossil fuels during the economic crisis contributed significantly to reduced atmospheric loadings of BC. According to our analysis this situation persisted until 2010. BC concentration values were analyzed in terms of air mass influence using cluster analysis. BC concentrations for cluster 1 (local and regional areas) showed high correlations with air masses frequency in winter and autumn. In these seasons BC sources were related to the intense road traffic and increased BC emissions from domestic heating. High BC concentrations were found in autumn just when air mass frequencies for cluster 3 (Mediterranean region) were more elevated, suggesting that air masses coming from that area transport biomass burning particles towards Granada. BC aerosol optical properties were retrieved from BC fraction using aerosol AERONET size volume distribution and Mie theory. A radiative transfer model (SBDART) was used to estimate the aerosol radiative forcing separately for composite aerosol (total aerosols) and exclusively for BC aerosols. The mean radiative forcing for composite aerosol was + 23 ± 6 W/m² (heating rate of + 0.21 ± 0.06 K/day) and + 15 ± 6 W/m² for BC aerosol (heating rate of + 0.15 ± 0.06 K/day). These values of radiative forcing and heating rate for BC aerosol represent about 70% of their values for composite aerosol, which highlights the crucial role that BC aerosols play in modifying the radiation budget and climate.