Oxidative Stress and Dietary Fat Type in Relation to Periodontal Disease
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AutorVarela-López, Alfonso; Quiles Morales, José Luis; Cordero, Mario; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro
PeriodontitisLipidsFatty acidsCholesterolDietDietary fatsNutrition
Varela-López, A.; et al. Oxidative Stress and Dietary Fat Type in Relation to Periodontal Disease. Antioxidants, 4: 322-344 (2015). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/45011]
Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients’ effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure, the resultant substrate-induced increase in citric acid cycle activity generates an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, dietary fatty acid intake influences in relative fatty acid composition of biological membranes determining its susceptibility to oxidative alterations. From this standpoint, here, we reviewed studies analyzing the dietary fat role in periodontal disease. Research data suggest that periodontal health could be achieved by main dietary strategies which include substitution of saturated fats with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly n-3 PUFA. Maybe in the future, we should analyze the diet and provide some advice to periodontitis patients to improve treatment outcomes.