From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions
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AutorTalhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; Rosa, Raúl de la; Fernández Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura Carretero, Antonio
Phenolic compoundsEVOOOlive fruitSix cultivarsTransfer rates
Talhaoui, N.; et al. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(3): 337 (2016). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/41411]
PatrocinadorThis research was partly funded by project P11-AGR-7301 of the Andalusian Regional Government Council of Innovation and Science and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. The analytical part was financially supported by Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (AGL2015-67995-C3) and the Andalusian Regional Government Council of Innovation and Science (P10-FQM-6563, P11-CTS-7625). The authors thank the International Olive Oil Council (IOC) for the grant (Ref.: T1 6-Doct 1/12) and the Ministry of Education and Competitiveness for the postdoctoral contract Juan de la Cierva (JCI-2012-12566).
Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.